Tin Pest

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE
April 16, 2017
jrbarnes@iglou.com

As a follow-on to writing Robust Electronic Design Reference Book, Volumes I and II in 2003, in late 2004 I started seriously researching:

Twelve years later, the 23,300+ documents that I have collected on these subjects take up half of my office and have overflowed into my living room, filling three bookcases and 10 file cabinets.

My Bibliography for Designing Lead-Free, RoHS-Compliant, and WEEE-Compliant Electronics contains all of the references to this mass of material. But at 6MB and 1,650+ pages length, the full Bibliography tends to choke many editors and some browsers.

A serious unintended consequence of the RoHS Directive-- mainly due to its ban on the use of lead in electronics-- has been a dramatic reduction in the quality, reliability, and longevity of electronic products produced since early 2006, versus equivalent tin/lead- based electronics that were manufactured from about 1950 through 2005. My gut feel from attending the Surface Mount Technology Association (SMTA) International Conference in October 2012 was that the out-of-box quality of lead-free electronics was finally approaching the quality we had for tin/lead-based electronics in 2005. But the reliability and longevity of lead-free electronics still suck in comparison to tin/lead-based electronics.

The much higher processing temperatures and poorer wetting of lead-free solders versus tin/lead- based solders have increased the number and severity of almost all of the kinds of manufacturing defects that we used to see in production. And all of the material changes forced on us by the RoHS Directive have made RoHS-compliant electronics susceptible to serious new failure modes:

One of the failure modes of electronics that has increased with the conversion from tin/lead-based solders/ platings to lead-free solders/ platings is called "tin pest", also known as "tin plague", "tin leprosy", "tin disease", or "tin blight". We usually think of tin as a silvery, ductle metal. This "white tin" or beta-tin has a tetragonal crystal structure. Below 13.2 degrees C (about 56 degrees Fahrenheit) tin can change to a brittle semiconductor, "grey tin", "gray tin", or alpha tin, with a cubic (diamond) crystal structure-- expanding about 27% in volume in the process, and usually turning to dust.

Books That Discuss Tin Pest
Metals Handbook, 1939 Edition. Cleveland, OH: American Society for Metals, 1939. pp. 1714-1715.

Metals Handbook, 9th Edition, Volume 2: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals. Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1979. pp. 811-812.

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase I. ACI Technologies, July 30, 2009.

The Mechanism of Phase Transformation in Metals. London: The Institute of Metals, 1956. pp. 87-92, 277, 291-292, 298-299.

The Properties of Tin. Greenford, Middlesex, England: Tin Research Institute, 1954. pp. 17-20, 24-25, 29-30, 36, 38-39, 50.

Soldering Manual. New York: American Welding Society, 1959. pp. 52.

Abbott, David, Inorganic Chemistry. London: Mills & Boon, 1965. pp. 390-391.

Addison, W. E., The Allotropy of the Elements. London: Oldbourne Press, 1964. pp. 23, 65, 93-96.

Aristotle (translated by Dowdall, L. D.), The Works of Aristotle Translated into English: de Mirabilibus Auscultationibus. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. pp. 834 (chapter 50, page 27 of the .pdf file).

Avner, Sidney H., Introduction to Physical Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. pp. 395-396.

Barrett, Charles S., Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles, and Data . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943. pp. 199, 201, 436, 554.

Barrett, C. S., and Massalski, T. B., Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles and Data . New York: Pergamon, 1980. pp. 230, 490.

Barry, B. T. K., and Thwaites, C. J., Tin and Its Alloys and Compounds. New York: Halsted Press, 1983. pp. 12-16.

Becker, James Hall, Crystal Growth and Electrical and Optical Properties of Gray Tin. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis for Cornell University, June 1957. pp. 1-253.

Bradley, Edwin, Handwerker, Carol A., Bath, Jasbir, Parker, Richard D., and Gedney, Ronald W., Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. ISBN 978-0-471-44887-7. $99.95 list price. pp. 18, 250-251.

Brick, R. M., and Phillips, Arthur, Structure and Property of Alloys. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1949. pp. 31.

Cahn, Robert W. and Haansen, Peter, Physical Metallurgy, 4th Edition, Volume 1. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1996. ISBN 0444898751. pp. 12, 25, 35.

Christian, J. W., The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys, New York: Pergamon Press, 1965. pp. 594-600.

Cohen, Ernst, Physico-Chemical Metamorphosis and Some Problems in Piezochemistry . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1928. pp. 23-34, 40-43, 87-88.

Coombs Jr., Clyde F., Printed Circuits Handbook, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. ISBN 0-07-146734-3. $135.00 list price. pp. 45.19.

Darken, Lawrence S., Gurry, Robert W., Physical Chemistry of Metals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1953. pp. 53, 308.

Dehlinger, Ulrich, Chemische Physik der Metalle und Legierungen. Liepzig, Germany: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, 1939. pp. 8-12, 42, 128-129.

Dillard, Clyde R., and Goldberg, David E., Chemistry Reactions, Structure and Properties. New York: MacMillan, 1971. pp. 558-559.

Earnshaw, A., and Greenwood, Norman, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition. Elsevier, 1997. pp. 371-372.

Emsley, John, Molecules at an Exhibition - Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0192862065. $17.95 list price. pp. 51-52.

Emsley, John, Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0198503407. $17.95 list price. pp. 450.

Forsythe, W. E., Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th Edition. Knovel, 1954. pp. 129, 291.

Ganesan, Sanka, and Pecht, Michael, Lead-free Electronics 2004 Edition. College Park, MD: CALCE EOSC Press, 2003. ISBN 0-9707174-7-4. $100 list price. pp. 233-234, 256.

Ganesan, Sanka, and Pecht, Michael. Lead-free Electronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. ISBN 0-471-78617-9. $99.95 list price. pp. 25, 36, 139, 181-184, 219, 507-508, 518, 545.

Gilman, J. J., The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963. pp. 177-179, 331-332.

Groen, Luiken Jan, Kinetiek van de Allotrope Omzetting in Tin. Thesis for echeikundig ingenieur, Delft. Oct. 31, 1956.

Hampel, Clifford A., The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Reinhold, 1968. pp. 722, 727.

Hedges, Ernest S., Tin and Its Alloys. London, Edward Arnold, 1960. pp. 48-52, 55-60.

Hume-Rothery, William, Atomic Theory for Students of Metallurgy. London: Institute of Metals, 1955. pp. 113, 154.

Hume-Rothery, William, and Raynor, G. V., The Structure of Metals and Alloys. London: The Institute of Metals, 1956. pp. 45, 50, 54.

Humpston, Giles, and Jacobson, David M., Principles of Soldering. Materials Park, OH: ASM, 2004. ISBN 0-87170-792-6. $165.00 list price. pp. 76-77, 195-196.

Hwang, Jennie S., Implementing Lead-Free Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. ISBN 0-07-144374-6. $99.95 list price. pp. 197.

Johnson, Colin C., and Kevra, Joseph, Solder Paste Technology: Principles and Applications. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Professional and Reference Books, 1989. ISBN 0-8306-3203-4. Available from Amazon.com. pp. 15.

Joshi, P. B., and Ramakrishnan, P., Materials for Electrical and Electronic Contacts: Processing, Properties, and Applications. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-57808-269-2. $118.00 list price. pp. 318.

Jowett, C. E., Reliable Electronic Assembly Production. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books, 1970. pp. 57, 60.

Le Couteur, Penny, and Burreson, Jay, Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2003. $14.95 list price. pp. 2.

Leidheiser Jr., Henry, The Corrosion of Copper, Tin, and Their Alloys. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971. ISBN 0-471-52600-2. pp. 326-333.

Leighou, Robert B., Chemistry of Engineering Materials. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1942. pp. 162-163.

Lide, David R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd Edition 2001-2002. New York: CRC Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8493-0482-2. pp. 4-32.

Liddell, Donald M., Handbook of Nonferrous Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1945. pp. 656.

Liddell, Donald M., and Doan, Gilbert E., The Principles of Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1933. pp. 349, 360, 363, 376, 388, 428-429.

Louis, Henry, Metallurgy of Tin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1911. pp. 1-3.

Lyman, Taylor, Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 1. Novelty, OH: American Society for Metals, 1961. pp. 1131.

Manko, Howard H., Soldering Handbook for Printed Circuits and Surface Mounting. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986. ISBN 0442-26423-2. Available from Amazon. pp. 100-101.

Manko, Howard H., Solders and Soldering: Materials, Design, Production, and Analysis for Reliable Bonding, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992. ISBN 0-07-039970-0. $79.95 list price. pp. 63.

Manko, Howard H., Solders and Soldering, 4th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-07-134417-9. pp. 69, 90.

Mantell, C. L., Tin: Its Mining, Production, Technology, and Applications. New York: Chemical Catalog Company, 1929. pp. 17-25.

Mantell, C. L., Tin: Its Mining, Production, Technology, and Applications, 2nd Edition . New York: Reinhold, 1949. pp. 7-12.

Mantell, Charles L., Engineering Materials Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958. pp. 11-2.

Mudge J., Wilbur L., Kinetics of the alpha to/from beta Transformation of Pure Tin. Master's Thesis for the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, June 1949. pp. 1-24 & figures.

Neumuller, Otto-Albrecht, Rompps Chemie-Lexikon, Volume 6. Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 1988. ISBN 3-440-04516-1. pp. 4714-4717.

Newton, Joseph, An Introduction to Metallurgy, 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1947. pp. 70-73, 257.

Paul, William, and Warschauer, Douglas M., Solids Under Pressure, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. pp. 226, 307, 316-317, 327.

Pearson, W. B., A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys . New York: Pergamon Press, 1958. pp. 129.

Pearson, W. B., A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys, Volume 2. New York: Pergamon Press, 1967. pp. 89.

Perry, Robert H., and Green, Donald W., Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1997. pp. 2-26.

Pollack, Herman W., Materials Science and Metallurgy. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing, 1977. pp. 49.

Price, J. W., Tin and Tin-Alloy Plating. Great Britain: Electrochemical Publications, 1983. pp. 112-117.

Karl J. Puttlitz and Kathleen A. Stalter, Handbook of Lead-Free Solder Technology for Microelectronic Assemblies . New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004. pp. 917-919, 925, 929-934.

Reed-Hill, Robert E., Physical Metallurgy Principles. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1964. pp. 315-319.

Rhines, Frederick N., Non-Ferrous Metallography Notes, Part II: Copper and the White Metals . Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1948. pp. 34-b, 34-d, 34-g.

Rose, Robert M., Shepard, Lawrence A., and Wulff, John, Structure and Properties of Materials, Volume IV: Electronic Properties . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. pp. 140-141.

Safranek, William H., The Properties of Electrodeposited Metals and Alloys, 2nd Edition . Orlando, FL: American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, 1986. ISBN 0-936569-00-X. pp. 444.

Schlesinger, Mordechay, and Paunovic, Milan, Modern Electroplating, 4th Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. ISBN 0-471-16824-6. $184.00 list price. pp. 249.

Seitz, Frederick, and Turnbull, David, Solid State Physics, Volume 3. New York: Academic Press, 1956. pp. 246-247, 293-295.

Seitz, Frederick, The Modern Theory of Solids. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1940. pp. 4-8, 61, 483-484.

Seitz, Frederick, The Physics of Metals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943. pp. 15-16, 45.

Shangguan, Dongkai, Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Reliability. Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 2005. ISBN 0-87170-816-7. $195.00 list price. pp. 12, 277.

Shreir, L. L., Jarman, R. A., and Burstein, G. T., Corrosion, 3rd Edition, Volume 1. Woburn, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994. ISBN 0750610778. pp. 4:157-4:158.

Smallman, R. E., and Bishop, R. J., Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering: Science, process, applications, 6th Edition. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999. ISBN 0750645644. pp. 20-21.

Stwertka, Albert, A Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, $19.95 list price. pp. 133-134.

Tammann, Gustav, Lehrbuch der Metallographie: Chemie und Physik der Metalle und ihrer Legierungen. Leipzig, Germany: Leopold Voss, 1923. pp. 137-143.

Teed, P. Litherland, The Properties of Metallic Materials at Low Temperatures. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1950. pp. 1, 4, 7, 197-201.

van Arkel, A. E., Reine Metalle, Berlin, Germany: Verlag von Julius Springer, 1939, pp. 491-492.

Verma, Ajit Ram, and Krishna, P., Polymorphism and Polytypism in Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1966. pp. 9-10, 40, 46, 55-57.

Vianco, Paul T., Soldering Handbook, 3rd Edition. Miami, FL: American Welding Society, 1999. ISBN 0871716186. pp. 190.

Wassink, R. J. Klein, Soldering in Electronics, 2nd Edition. Electrochemical Publications, 1989. ISBN 0 901150 24 X. Available from Amazon. pp. 148.

Wyckoff, Ralph W. G., Crystal Structures, Volume 1. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1960. pp. Chap. II text pages 10, 13.

Master's and Ph. D. Theses That Discuss Tin Pest
Busta, Heinz, Uniaxial-tensile-stress-modified Galvanomagnetic Properties of Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1974. pp. 1-143.

Choudhuri, Deep, Influence of Nano-structured Chemicals on the Microstructures and Mechanical Reliability of Lead-Free Tin-Based Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, MI, 2009. pp. 172-193.

Hensler, Donald Henry, Oscillatory Microwave Magnetoconductivity in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, Jan. 1963. pp. 1-64.

Hinkley Jr., Everett David, Oscillatory Magnetoresistance in Gray Tin . Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1963. pp. 1-135.

Kim, Hye-Rim, Growth and Low Frequency Noise Properties of Grey Tin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, May 1991. pp. 1-228.

Lavine, Charles Frederic, Two-band Galvanomagnetic Effects in Gray Tin . Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1968. pp. 1-130.

Lee, Jong-Gi, Investigation of Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) Behavior in Tin-Silver Based Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2005. pp. 11-12.

Leung, Wai-Bor, Electronic Properties of Gray Tin in the Presence of an External Magnetic Field. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1974. pp. 1-97.

Lindquist, Rolf Eugene, The Infrared Optical Properties of Single-crystal Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1963. pp. 1-179.

Roman, Bernard John, Stress-Induced Bandgap and Related Phenomena in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1969. pp. 1-172.

Papers, Reports, and Magazine Articles That Discuss Tin Pest
"Allotropic Transformation of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 161, pp. 3, 1989.

"Baroque Magnificence in Tin An Austrian Shrine," Tin and its Uses , no. 43, pp. 1-7, Summer 1958.

"Concerned about "tin pest"," Circuitnet, June 11, 2006.

"Lead-free solder and tin pests," finishing.com.

"NPL SSTC lead-free meeting previews unique video of tin transformation," emsnow, June 1, 2007.

"Sitzung vom 25. October," Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, vol. 2, pp. 540-541, 1869.

"Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Tin", ASTM Standard B 545 - 97, West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997.

"Susceptibility to "Tin Pest"," Nihon Superior.

"The Failure of Tin Beer Cooling Coils," Tin and its Uses, no. 3, pp. 13, Oct. 1939.

"Tin disease, organ pipes and Napoleonic buttons," Advanced Materials & Processes, vol. 162 no. 4, pp. 51, Apr. 2004.

"Tin Pest," Nihon Superior.

"Tin-Zinc Plating Grows Up," Tin and its Uses, no. 29, pp. 9, Sept. 1953.

"Transformation of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 14, pp. 14, May 1943.

"Typical Analyses of Various Brands of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 27, pp. 6-7, Nov. 1952.

"Typical Tin Analyses," Tin and its Uses, no. 77, pp. 8-9, 1968.

"What is Tin Pest and how does it occur?," LiveWire, no. 11, pp. xx-xx, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Aptekar', I. L., and Styrkas, A. D., "Inert Supports as Carriers of Tin-Plague Infection from InSb to beta-Sn," High-Purity Substances (a translation of Vysokochistye Veshchestva) vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 282-284, May-June 1993.

Aptekar', I. L., and Styrkas, A. D., "Nature of Memory in the Case of a Phase Transition in Tin After a beta-alpha-beta Cycle," High-Purity Substances (a translation of Vysokochistye Veshchestva) vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 285-288, May-June 1993.

Aptekar', I. L., Styrkas, A. D., and Aptekar', L. I., "The Nature of Tin Plague," High-Purity Substances (a translation of Vysokochistye Veshchestva) vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 289-292, May-June 1993.

Avrami, Melvin, "Kinetics of Phase Change, I: General Theory," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 7 no. 12, pp. 1103-1112, Dec. 1939.

Avrami, Melvin, "Kinetics of Phase Change, II: Transformation-Time Relations for Random Distribution of Nuclei," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 8 no. 2, pp. 212-224, Feb. 1940.

Barten, P. G. J., "Continue waarneming van het rekristallisatie-proces bij metalen met gepolariseerd licht," Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde, vol. 20, pp. 25-35, 1954.

Becker, J. H., "On the Linear Rate of Transformation of White to Gray Tin," Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Series II, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 45, Jan. 30, 1956.

Becker, J. H., "On the Quality of Gray Tin Crystals and Their Rate of Growth," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 29 no. 7, pp. 1110-1121, July 1958.

Becker, J. H., "Studies of Crystal Growth, and Electrical and Optical Properties of Gray Tin," Physical Review, Second Series, vol. 98 no. 4, pp. 1192, May 15, 1955.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "De Kristalstructuur van Het Grauwe Tin," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 15 nr. 40, pp. 1264, Oct. 5, 1918.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "De Kristalstructuur van Tin," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 15 no. 35, pp. 1077-1079, Aug. 31, 1918.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "Investigation by means of X-rays of the crystal-structure of white and grey tin. I," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 21 no. 3, pp. 405-408, 1919.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "Investigation by means of X-rays of the crystal-structure of white and grey tin, II. The structure of white tin," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 21 no. 4, pp. 494-500, 1919.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "Investigation by means of X-rays of the crystal-structure of white and grey tin, III. The structure of grey tin," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 21 no. 4, pp. 501-504, 1919.

Blum, A. I., and Goryunova, N. A., "(russian)," Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, vol. 75 no. 3, pp. 367-370, 1950.

Bornemann, Alfred, ""Tin Disease" in Solder Type Alloys," Symposium on Solder (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 189), Atlantic City, NJ, June 19-20, 1956, pp. 129-148.

Brachmann, Matthias, "Is everybody ready?," emsnow, Dec. 21, 2004.

Bragg, W. L., "Discussion, Part I," Proceedings of the Physical Society, vol. 51 part 1 no. 289, pp. 54-55, Jan. 1940.

Bronsted, J. N., "Studien zur chemischen Affinitat. IX. Die allotrope Zinnumwandlung," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 88, no. xx, pp. 479-489, 1914.

Bronsted, J. N., "Untersuchungen uber die Spezifische Warme. I," Zeitschrift fur Elektrochemie, vol. 18 no. 16, pp. 714-717, Aug. 15, 1912.

Brownlee, L. D., "Lattice Constant of Grey Tin," Nature, vol. 166 no. 4220, pp. 482, Sept. 16, 1950.

Bruzel, Alan, "Tin Disease," Apr. 3, 2000.

Bundy, F. P., "Behavior of Carbon at Very High Pressures and Temperatures," Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Series B, vol. 72 no. 5, pp. 302-316, 1969.

Burgers, J. M., "Geometrical Considerations Concerning the Structural Irregularities to be Assumed in a Crystal," Proceedings of the Physical Society, vol. 51 part 1 no. 289, pp. 23-33, Jan. 1940.

Burgers, W. G., and Groen, L. J., "Mechanism and Kinetics of the Allotropic Transformation of Tin," Discussions of the Faraday Society, vol. 23, pp. 183-195, 1957.

Burns, Neil Douglas, "A Tin Pest Failure," Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 9 no. 5, pp. 461-465, Oct. 2009.

Busch, G., and Mooser, E., "Die magnetischen Eigenschaften der Halbleiter mit besonderer Berucksichtigung des grauen Zinns," Helvetica Physica Acta, vol. 26 no. 6, pp. 611-656, Nov. 1953.

Busch, G., Wieland, J., and Zoller, H., "Elektrische Eigenschaften des grauen Zinns," Helvetica Physica Acta , vol. 24 no. 1, pp. 48-62, 1951.

Busch, G., and Mooser, E., "Magnetische Suszeptibilitat des grauen Zinns," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 198 no. 1-4, pp. 23-29, Oct. 1951.

Busch, G. A., and Kern, R., "Semiconducting Properties of Gray Tin," Solid State Physics, vol. 11, pp. 1-40, 1960.

Busch, G., and Wieland, J., "Untersuchungen uber den Mechanismus der elektrischen Leitfahigkeit des grauen Zinns," Helvetica Physica Acta, vol. 26 no. 7-7, pp. 697-730, Dec. 1953.

Busch, G., Wieland, J., and Zoller, H., "Versuche zur Messung der elektrischen Leitfahlgkeit des grauen Zinns," Helvetica Physica Acta, vol. 23, pp. 528-529, 1950.

Cagle Jr., F. Wm., and Eyring, Henry, "An Application of the Absolute Rate Theory to Phase Changes in Solids," Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 57 no. 9, pp. 942-946, Jan. 4, 1954.

Cahn, R. W., "A New Theory of Recrystallization Nuclei," Proceedings of the Physical Society, B, vol. 63 part 4 no. 364B, pp. 323-336, Apr. 1, 1950.

Carpenter, H. C. H., and Elam, Constance F., "Crystal Growth and Recrystallization in Metals," Journal of the Institute of Metals, vol. 29 no. 2, pp. 83-131, 1920.

Chapman, A. H., "Relative Effectiveness of Antimony, Lead and Bismuth in Retarding the beta -> alpha Transformation of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 160, pp. 2-3, 1989.

Chiavari, C., Martini, C., Poli, G., and Prandstraller, D., "Deterioration of tin-rich organ pipes," Journal of Materials Science , vol. 41 no. xx, pp. 1819-1826, 2006.

Christian, Bev, and Culver, Aaron, "Tin Pest Disease," International Conference on Lead-free Soldering , Toronto, Canada, May 24-26, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Cohen, Ernst, "Anmerkung zu Obiger Mitteilung uber die Forcierkrankheit," Zeitschrift fur Elektrochemie, vol. 19 no. 1, pp. 23, Jan. 1, 1913.

Cohen, Ernst, and Olie Jr., J., "Das Atomvolumen allotroper Modifikationen bei sehr tiefen Temperaturen. I," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 71 no. xx, pp. 385-400, 1910.

Cohen, Ernst, Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Der Einfluss mechanischer Deformation auf die Umwandlungsgeschwindigkeit polymorpher Metalle," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 38 no. 4, pp. 377-387, 1935.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Der Einfluss mechanischer Deformation auf die Umwandlungsgeschwindigkeit polymorpher Metalle II," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 39 no. 3, pp. 352-358, 1936.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Der Einfluss mechanischer Deformation auf die Umwandlungsgeschwindigkeit polymorpher Metalle III," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 39 no. 10, pp. 1174-1179, 1936.

Cohen, Ernst, Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., and Landsman, J., "Die akute Zinnpest," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 181 no. xx, pp. 124-132, 1937.

Cohen, Ernst, Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., and Landsman, J., "Die akute Zinnpest," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 40 no. 9, pp. 746-752, 1937.

Cohen, Ernst, and Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., "Die akute Zinnpest. II," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 182 no. xx, pp. 103-109, 1938.

Cohen, Ernst, and Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., "Die akute Zinnpest II," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 41 no. 5, pp. 462-467, 1938.

Cohen, Ernst, and Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., "Die akute Zinnpest. III," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 183 no. xx, pp. 190-198, 1939.

Cohen, Ernst, and Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., "Die akute Zinnpest III," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 41 no. 8, pp. 860-866, 1938.

Cohen, Ernst, and Inouye, Katsuji, "De Metastabiliteit onzer Metaalwereld," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 6 no. 45, pp. 881-892, Nov. 6, 1909.

Cohen, Ernst, "De Tinpest in Nederland," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 2 no. 29, pp. 450-452, July 22, 1905.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Die Geshwindigkeit polymorpher Umwandlungen. Neue Untersuchungen uber die Zinnpest," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. A173 no. xx, pp. 1-31, 1935.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Die Geshwindigkeit polymorpher Umwandlungen. II," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. A173 no. xx, pp. 67-70, 1935.

Cohen, Ernst, Cohen-de Meester, W. A. T., and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Die Geshwindigkeit polymorpher Umwandlungen. III," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. A173 no. xx, pp. 169-177, 1935.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Die Geshwindigkeit polymorpher Umwandlungen. IV," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. A177 no. xx, pp. 331-336, 1936.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Die Geshwindigkeit polymorpher Umwandlungen. V," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. A178 no. 3, pp. 221-226, 1936.

Cohen, Ernst, and Moesveld, A. L. Th., "Die Metastabilitat der Elemente und Verbindungen als Folge von Enantiotropie oder Monotropie. I," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 94 no. 3-4, pp. 450-464, 1917?.

Cohen, Ernst, and Moesveld, A. L. Th., "Die Metastabilitat der Elemente und Verbindungen als Folge von Enantiotropie oder Monotropie. IX," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 115 no. 1-2, pp. 151-159, 1925.

Cohen, Ernst, and Dekker, K. Douwes, "Die Metastabilitat der Elemente und Verbindungen als Folge von Enantiotropie oder Monotropie. X," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 127 no. 3-4, pp. 183-217, 1927.

Cohen, Ernst, "Een nieuwe besmettelijke ziekte van het Tin: de Forceerziekte," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 6 no. 33, pp. 625-640, Aug. 14, 1909.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Ein elektrisches Druckdilatometer," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 39 no. 5, pp. 596-603, 1936.

Cohen, Ernst, "Eine neue Art Umwandlungselemente (sechste Art)," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 623-627, 1899.

Cohen, Ernst, "Infected tin or the "tin-pest"," Journal of the Franklin Institute , vol. 173 no. 5, pp. 531, May 1912.

Cohen, Ernst, "Neues uber die Forcierkrankheit," Zeitschrift fur Elektrochemie, vol. 18 no. 14, pp. 616-617, July 15, 1912.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Eyk, C., "On the Enantiotropy of Tin," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 2 no. x, pp. 77-80, 1899.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Eyk, C., "On the Enantiotropy of Tin (II)," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 2 no. x, pp. 149-153, 1899.

Cohen, Ernst, "On the Enantiotropy of Tin (V)," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 3 no. xx, pp. 93-98, 1900.

Cohen, Ernst. and Dekker, K. Douwes, "Physico-Chemical Studies on Tin. IX. - The Transformation Temperature Grey Tin <--> White Tin," Journal of the Institite of Metals, vol. 38 no. 2, pp. 383, 1927.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Eijk, C., "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 601-622, 1899.

Cohen, Ernst, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 33 no. xx, pp. 57-62, 1900.

Cohen, Ernst, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn," Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie, vol. 35 no. 5, pp. 588-597, 1900.

Cohen, Ernst, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 36 no. xx, pp. 513-516, 1901.

Cohen, Ernst, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn. V," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 48 no. xx, pp. 243-245, 1904.

Cohen, Ernst, and Goldschmidt, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn. VI," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 50 no. xx, pp. 225-237, 1905.

Cohen, Ernst, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn. VII," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 63 no. xx, pp. 625-635, 1908.

Cohen, Ernst, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn. VIII," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 68 no. 2, pp. 214-231, 1909.

Cohen, Ernst, and Dekker, K. Douwes, "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn. IX. Die Umwandlungstemperatur graues Zinn <==> weisses Zinn," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie , vol. 27 no. xx, pp. 178-182, 1927.

Cohen, Ernst, and van Lieshout, A. K. W. A., "Physikalisch-chemische Studien am Zinn. X. Die Umwandlungstemperatur graues Zinn <==> weisses Zinn," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie , vol. A173 no. xx, pp. 32-34, 1935.

Cohen, Ernst, "The Allotropy of Metals," Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol. 7, pp. 122-135, 1911.

Cohen, Ernst, "The Enantiotropy of Tin (III)," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 2 no. x, pp. 281-286, 1899.

Cohen, Ernst, "The enantiotrophy of Tin (IV)," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 2 no. x, pp. 464-467, 1900.

Cohen, Ernst, "The Enantiotropy of Tin (VI)," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 3 no. xx, pp. 469-472, 1901.

Cohen, Ernst, "The Physical Chemist in Search of Purity in an Impure World," Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, New series vol. 48 no. 7, pp. 162-169, Feb. 15, 1929.

Cohen, Ernst, "Tinpest en Meseumziekte," De Ingenieur, vol. 23 no. 30, pp. 529-539, 1908.

Cohen, Ernst, "Tinpest en Museumziekte in Nederland," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 24 nr. 32, pp. 402-403, Aug. 6, 1927.

Coston, C., and Nachtrieb, N. H., "Self-Diffusion in Tin at High Pressure," Journal of Physical Chemistry , vol. 68 no. 4, pp. 2219-2229, Aug. 1964.

de Hass, W. J., Sizoo, G. J., and Voogd, J., "Research about the question whether grey tin becomes supraconductive or not," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 31 no. 3. pp. 350-352, 1928.

Degens, P. N., "Zinn-Bleilegierungen," Zeitschrift fur Anorganische Chemie, vol. 63 no. 3, pp. 207-224, 1909.

Di Maio, D., and Hunt, C. P., "Monitoring the Growth of the a Phase in Tin Alloys by Electrical Resistance Measurements," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 9, pp. 1874-1880, Sept. 2009.

Di Maio, D., and Hunt, C., "On the absence of the b to a Sn allotropic transformation in solder joints made from paste and metal powder," Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88 no. 1, pp. 117-120, Jan. 2011.

Di Maio, D., and Hunt, C., "Time-lapse photography of the beta-Sn/alpha-Sn allotropic transformation," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 20 no. 4, pp. 386-391, Apr. 2009.

Eckert, A., "Organ pipes and tin pest," Materials and Corrosion, vol. 59 no. 3, pp. 254-260, Mar. 2008.

Engleheart, G. H., Read, Charles H., and Gowland, William, "On some Buildings of the Romano-British Period discovered at Clanville, near Andover, and on a deposit of Pewter Vessels of the same period found at Appleshaw, Hants," Archaeologia: Or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, vol. 56, pp. 1-20, 1899.

Erdmann, O. L., "Ueber eine merkwurdige Structurveranderung bleihaltigen Zinnes," Journal fur Praktische Chemie, vol. 52, pp. 428-431, 1851.

Ewald, A. E., "Effect of Impurities on the Conductivity of Gray Tin," Physical Review, Second Series, vol. 94 no. 4, pp. 1428, May 15, 1954.

Ewald, A. W., and Tufte, O. N., "Electronic Properties of Gray Tin Single Crystals," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 8, pp. 523-525, Jan. 1959.

Ewald, A. E., "Germanium-Stabilized Gray Tin," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 25 no. 11, pp. 1436-1437, Nov. 1954.

Ewald, A. E., and Tufte, O. N., "Gray Tin Single Crystals," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 29 no. 7, pp. 1007-1009, July 1958.

Ewald, A. E., and Kohnke, E. E., "Measurements of Electrical Conductivity and Magnetoresistance of Gray Tin Filaments," Physical Review, Second Series, vol. 97 no. 3, pp. 607-613, Feb. 1, 1955.

Ewald, A. E., "Preparation of Gray Tin Filaments," Physical Review, Second Series , vol. 91 no. 1, pp. 244, July 1, 1953.

Farup, P., "Om Tinpest," Teknisk Ugeblads Afdeling for Kemi og Bergvaesen, vol. 55, pp. 19, May 29, 1908.

Field, Karen, "Did Tin Pest Cause Napoleon to Experience a Wardrobe Malfunction??," Electronics Weekly, Nov. 8, 2007.

Fleeman, Jerome, and Dienes, G. J., "Effect of Reactor Irradiation on the White-to-Grey Tin Transformation," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 26 no. 6, pp. 652-654, June 1955.

Forster, Fritz, and Scheil, Erich, "Untersuchung des zeitlichen Ablaufes von Umklappvorgangen in Metallen," Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde, vol. 32 no. 6, pp. 165-173, June 1940.

Foullon, Heinrich Baron V., "Ueber krystallisirtes Zinn," Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, vol. 34 no. 2, pp. 367-384, 1884.

Fritsche, J., "Ueber eigenthumlich modificirtes Zinn," Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, vol. 2, pp. 112-113, 1869.

Fritzsche, T., "XXII. On the Production of a Columnar Structure in Metallic Tin," The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science , ser. 4 vol. 35 no. 254, pp. 207, Sept. 1869.

Gallerneault, W. M. T., Vnuk, F., and Smith, R. W., "Silicon-stabilized grey tin," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 54 no. 7, pp. 4200-4201, July 1983.

Gialanella, S., Deflorian, F., Girardi, F., Lonardelli, I., and Rossi, S., "Kinetics and microstructural aspects of the allotropic transition in tin," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 474 no. 1-2, pp. 134-139, Apr. 17, 2009.

Goland, A. N., and Ewald, A. W., "Thermoelectric Power in Gray Tin Filaments," Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Series II, vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 226, Apr. 26, 1956.

Goryunova, N. A., "(russian)," Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, vol. 75 no. 1, pp. 51-54, 1950.

Groen, L. J., "Formation of Compact Pieces of Grey Tin," Nature, vol. 174 no. 4435, pp. 836, Oct. 30, 1954.

Groen, L. J., and Burgers, W. G., "Formation of Compact Pieces of Gray Tin," Koninklijke Nederlandse Akadamie van Wetenschappen, Proceedings of the Section of Sciences, Series B: Physical Sciences, vol. 57, pp. 79-80, 1954.

Groen, L. J., "On the Accelerating Influence of Tin-ions on the Transition of White into Gray Tin," Koninklijke Nederlandse Akadamie van Wetenschappen, Proceedings of the Section of Sciences, Series B: Physical Sciences, vol. 57, pp. 122-124, 1954.

Hall, E. O., "The --> Transformation in Pure Tin and Its Dilute Alloys," The Mechanism of Phase Transformations in Metals, London, U. K., Nov. 9, 1955, pp. 87-92.

Hanson, A. C., and Inman, G. O., "Limitations of Tin as a Packing Material," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol 31 no. 6, pp. 662-663, 1939.

Hartshorne, N. H., "The Linear Velocity of Polymorthic Transformations," Discussions of the Faraday Society, vol. 5, pp. 149-158, 1949.

Hasslinger, R. v., "Uber eine neue Form von Zinnpest," Monatshefte fur Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, vol. 29, pp. 787-790, 1908.

Hedges, E. S., and Higgs, J. Y., "Preparation of Grey Tin," Nature, vol. 169 no. 4302, pp. 621-622, Apr. 12, 1952.

Higgins III, Leo M., "The `Other' Tin Issue: Tin Pest," Advanced Packaging, vol. 14 no. 4. pp. 12, Apr. 2005.

Hill, R. W., and Parkinson, D. H., "The Specific Heats of Germanium and Grey Tin at Low Temperatures," Philosophical Magazine, 7th series, vol. 43 no. 338, pp. 309-316, Mar. 1952.

Hillman, David, "An Investigation into the Tin Pest Phenomena: 3 Years and Counting," 2008 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Orlando, FL, Aug. 17-21, 2008, pp. 733-738.

Hillman, Dave, "An Investigation into the Tin Pest Phenomena: 3 Years and Counting," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, Nov. 20, 2013.

Hillman, David, Schmidt, Mike, and Christian, Bev, "Tin Pest Phenomena: A Real World Test Scenario," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 660-665.

Homer, C. E., and Watkins, H. C., "Transformation of Tin at Low Temperatures," The Metal Industry, vol. 60 no. 22, pp. 364-366. May 29, 1942.

Hunt, Christopher, "An Overview of NPL studies related to Spacecraft electronics'," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

Hunt, Christopher, and Wickham, Martin, "Reliability Issues with Lead-Free," Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Portsmouth, England, Feb. 17, 2010.

Hunt, Christopher, "Reliability issues with lead-free," 2nd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Paris, France, May 4, 2011.

Hunt, Christopher, and Di Maio, Davide, "Tin Allotropic Transformation - Tin Pest," IPC Printed Circuits Expo, APEX and the Designers Summit Proceedings 2008 Technical Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Apr. 1-3, 2008, pp. S13:02.

Ishikawa, Haruji, "On the Transformation of Tin at Low Temperature," Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 6 no. 6, pp. 531-532, Nov.-Dec. 1951.

Jamieson, John C., "Crystal Structures at High Pressures of Metallic Modifications of Silicon and Germanium," Science, New Series, vol. 139 no. 3556, pp. 762-764, Feb. 22, 1963.

Jamieson, John C., "Crystal Structures at High Pressures of Metallic Modifications of Compounds of Indium, Gallium, and Aluminum," Science, New Series, vol. 139 no. 3557, pp. 845-847, Mar. 1, 1963.

Janecke, Ernst, "Die Umwandlungen der Metalle Zinn, Zink, Wismut, Kadmium, Kupfer, Silber, Blei und Antimon, bestimmt mit dem neuen elektrisch heizbaren Druckapparat," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 90 no. 3, pp. 313-339, 1915.

Janecke, Ernst, "Uber einen elektrisch heizbaren Druckapparat zur Untersuchung der Schmelz- und Umwandlungserscheinungen von Salzen, Salzgemischen, Metallem und Legierungen," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 90 no. xx, pp. 257-264, 1915.

Jayaraman, A., Klement Jr., W., and Kennedy, G. C., "Melting and Polymorphism at High Pressures in Some Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds with the Diamond/Zincblende Structure," Physical Review, Series 2, vol. 130 no. 2, pp. 540-547, Apr. 15, 1963.

Jayaraman, A., Newton, R. C., and Kennedy, G. C., "Melting and Polymorphism of Indium Antimonide at High Pressure," Nature , vol. 191 no. 4795, pp. 1288-1290, Sept. 23, 1961.

Kalish, H. S., and Dunkerley, F. J., "The Low-Temperature Properties of Tin and Tin-Lead Alloys," Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers , vol. 180, pp. 637-656, 1949.

Kariya, Yoshiharu, "Tin Pest in Lead-Free Solder Alloys," Netsu Shori/Journal of the Japan Society for Heat Treatment, vol. 44 no. 3, pp. 133-134, June 2004.

Kariya, Yoshiharu, Gagg, Colin, and Plumbridge, William, "Tin pest in lead-free solders," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 13 no. 1, pp. 39-40, 2000.

Kariya, Yoshijaru, Williams, Naomi, Gagg, Colin, and Plumbridge, William, "Tin Pest in Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu Lead-Free Solder," JOM, vol. 53 no. 6, pp. 39-41, June 2001.

Keesom, W. H., and Kok, J. A., "On the change of the specific heat of tin when becoming supraconductive," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 32 no. 6, pp. 743-748, 1932.

Keesom, W. H., and van den Ende, J. N., "The specific heat of solids at temperatures obtainable with liquid helium. IV," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 143-155, 1932.

Kendall, J. T., "Electrical Conductivity of Gray Tin," Proceedings of the Physical Society, vol. 63 part 1 no. 361B, pp. 821-822. Jan. 1, 1950.

Kendall, J. T., "Electronic Conduction in Grey Tin," Philosophical Magazine , 7th series, vol. 45 no. 361, pp. 141-157, Feb. 1954.

Klais, Hans Gerd, "Zinn, Blei und ihre Gemenge bei Orgelpfeifen," Acta Organologica , vol. 27, pp. 187-204, 2001.

Kohnke, E. E., and Ewald, A. W., "Hall Effect in Gray Tin Filaments," Physical Review, series 2, vol. 102 no. 6, pp. 1481-1486, June 15, 1956.

Komar, A., and Lasarew, B., "On the Linear Velocity of Transformation of White Tin into Grey," Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 468-473, 1935.

Kostic, Andrew D., "Current Understanding of the Quality and Reliability of Lead-free Tin," Microelectronics Reliability and Qualification Workshop, Manhattan Beach, CA, Dec. 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Kostic, Andrew D., "Tin Plague," Jan. 1, 2005.

Kuo, Kehsin, and Burgers, W. G., "An X-Ray Investigation of the White to Grey Transformation of Tin," Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, vol. B59 no. 4, pp. 288-297, 1956.

Krause, Ernst, "Rundschau," Prometheus, vol. 11, pp. 701-702, 1900.

Lange, Fritz, "Untersuchungen uber die spezifische Warme bei tiefen Temperaturen," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. 110 no. xx, pp. 343-362, 1924.

Lange, W., and Bergner, D., "Messung der Korngrenzenselbstdiffusion in Polykristallinem Zinn," Physica Status Solidi, vol. 2 no. 10, pp. 1410-1414, 1962.

Lasky, Ron, "Napoleon's Buttons and Lead-free Soldering," Surface Mount Technology, vol. 18 no. 10, pp. 18, Oct. 2004.

Lasky, Ron, "Napoleon's Buttons and Lead-free Soldering," Lead-free Electronics, Nov. 2004.

Lasky, Ronald C., "Tin Pest: A Forgotten Issue in Lead-free Soldering?," 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 26-30, 2004, pp. 838-840.

Lasky, Ronald C., "Tin Pest: Elusive Threat in Lead-Free Soldering?," Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 10 no. 6, pp. 437-443, Dec. 2010.

Leodolter-Dworak, Monika, Steffan, Ilse, Plumbridge, William J., and Ipser, Herbert, "Tin Pest in Sn-0.5Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys: A Chemical Analysis of Trace Elements," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 39 no. 1, pp. 105-108, Jan. 2010.

Lihl, F., "On the Cause of Tin Decay in the Sarcophagi of the "Kapuzinergruft"," Studies in Conservation, vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 88-106, Aug. 1962.

Lipcsei, Laura, Murray, Alison, Smith, Reginald, and Savas, Mahmut, "An Examination of Deterioration Products Found on Tin Ingots Excavated from the 14th Century B.C., Late Bronze Age Shipwreck, The Ulu Burun, Near Kas, Turkey," Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 712), Boston, MA, Nov. 26-30, 2001, pp. 451-459.

MacIntosh, R. M., "Tin in Cold Service," Tin and its Uses, no. 72, pp. 7-10, 1966.

Magnusson, A. W., and Baldwin Jr., W. M., "Low Temperature Brittleness," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 5 no. 3, pp. 172-181, 1957.

Mapelli, Carlo, Nicodemi, Walter, and Venturini, Roberto, "Study of the deterioration of metal alloy organ pipes from different periods in Italy,", pp. 84-89.

Mason, C. W., and Forgeng, W. D., "Effect of Bismuth as an Impurity on the Structure and Allotropic Transformation of Tin," Metals & Alloys, vol. 6, pp. 87-90, Apr. 1935.

Mason, C. W., and Forgeng, W. D., "Effect of bismuth as an impurity on the structure and allotropic transformation of tin," British Chemical Abstracts B, pp. 595, June 21, 1935.

Meakin, J. D., and Klokholm, E., "Self-Diffusion in Tin Single Crystals," Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, vol. 218, pp. 463-466, June 1960.

Mitchell, D. R. G., and Donnelly, S. E., "A transmission electron microscopy study of the beta -> alpha-phase transformation of tin," Philosophical Magazine A, vol. 63 no. 4, pp. 747-755, Apr. 1991.

Moesveld, A. L., Th., "On fundamentally wrong methods for establishing non-existence of polymorphy," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 40 no. 2, pp. 155-164, 1937.

Moesveld, A. L. Th., "Uber prinzipiell fehlerhafte Verfahren zur Feststellung der Nichtexistenz von Polymorphie," Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. A178 no. 6, pp. 455-467, 1936.

Murphy, A. J., "The Constitution of the Alloys of Silver and Tin," Journal of the Institute of Metals, vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 107-129, 1926.

Nishimura, Tetsuro, "Pushing the Limits of Lead-Free Soldering," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 10, pp. 12,14-16,18-20,22,24,26, Oct. 2013.

Ostwald, W., "Studien uber die Bildung und Umwaldlung fester Korper. 1. Abhandlung: Ubersattigung und Uberkaltung," Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie , vol. 22 no. 3, pp. 289-330, 1897.

Papish, Jacob, Brewer, F. M., and Holt, Donald A., "Germanium. XXV. Arc Spectrographic Detection and Estimation of Germanium. Occurance of Germanium in Certain Tin Minerals. Enargite as a Possible Source of Germanium," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 49 no. 12, pp. 3028-3033, Dec. 1927.

Peng, Weiqun, "An investigation of Sn pest in pure Sn and Sn-based solders," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 49 no. 1, pp. 86-91, Jan. 2009.

Plenderleith, H. J., and Organ, R. M., "The Decay and Conservation of Museum Objects of Tin," Studies in Conservation, vol. 1 no. 2, pp. 63-72, June 1953.

Plumbridge, W. J., "Further Observations on Tin Pest Formation in Solder Alloys," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 39 no. 4, pp. 433-440, Apr. 2010.

Plumbridge, W. J., "Recent Observations on Tin Pest Formation in Solder Alloys," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 2, pp. 218-223, Feb. 2008.

Plumbridge, Bill, "The Materials Perspective," Structural Integrity & Reliability in Lead-Free, United Kingdom, Mar. 25, 2004.

Plumbridge, W. J., "Tin pest in electronics?," Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 1, pp. 9-14, 2007.

Plumbridge, W. J., "Tin pest in lead-containing solders," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 1, pp. 56-57, 2010.

Plumbridge, W. J., "Tin pest issues in lead-free electronic solders," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 307-318, Mar. 2007.

Prasad, S. C., and Wooster, W. A., "The Anomalous X-ray Background Scattering from B-Tin," Acta Crystallographica, vol. 9 part 1, pp. 35-37, Jan. 10, 1956.

Raynor, G. V., and Smith, R. W., "The transition temperature of the transition between grey and white tin," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, vol. 244, pp. 101-109, 1958.

Reiss, Howard, "Recent Developments in Nucleation Theory," Zeitschrift fur Elektrochemie Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft fur Physikalische Chemie, vol. 56 no. 5, pp. 459-464, 1952.

Rinne, Glenn A., "Tin Pest in Tin-rich Solders," Advanced Packaging, vol. 15 no. 11, pp. 32, 34, Nov./Dec. 2006.

Rogers, R. R., and Fydell, J. F., "Effect of Germanium on the Transformation of White to Gray Tin, at Comparatively Low Temperature," Journal of the Electrochemical Society , vol. 100 no. 4, pp. 161-164, Apr. 1953.

Rogers, R. R., and Fydell, J. F., "Factors Affecting the Transformation to Gray Tin at Low Temperatures," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 100 no. 9, pp. 383-387, Sept. 1953.

Sampson, Michael J., Lead-Free Electronics: Impact for Space Electronics," NASA.

Sauerwald, F., and Teske, W., "Uber die rontgenpgraphische Untersuchung schmelzflussiger Metalle und Legierungen," Zeitschrift fur anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, vol. 210 pp. 247-256, 1933.

Schertel, Arnulf, "Einige Beobachtungen uber die graue Modification des Zinns," Journal fur Praktische Chemie, vol. 19 no. x, pp. 322-326, 1879.

Semenova, Olga, Flandorfer, Hans, and Ipser, Herbert, "On the non-occurrence of tin pest in tin-silver-indium solders," Scripta Materialia, vol. 52 no. 2, pp. 89-92, Jan. 2005.

Sharvin, G., "The Experimental Proof of the Non-Supraconductivity of Grey Tin Down to 1.32 K," Journal of Physisc (USSR), vol. 9 no. 4, pp. 350-351, 1945.

Skwarek, A., Kulawik, J., and Witek, K., "Induction of Tin Pest Transformation in Solder Joints in Ceramic Packages of Sub-THz Scanner," 2015 38th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Eger, Hungary, May 6-10, 2015, pp. 47-51.

Skwarek, Agata, Illes, Balazs, and Geczy, Attila, "Characterization of Tin Pest by Electrical Resistance Measurement," 2016 IEEE 22nd International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging, Oradea, Romania, Oct. 20-23, 2016, pp. 294-299.

Skwarek, Agata, Zachariasz, Piotr, Kulawik, Jan, and Witek, Krzysztof, "Inoculator dependent induced growth of a-Sn," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 166, pp. 16-19, Sept. 15, 2015.

Skwarek, Agata, Sroda, Marcin, Pluska, Mariusz, Czerwinski, Andrzej, Ratajczak, Jacek, and Witek, Krzysztof, "Occurrence of tin pest on the surface of tin-rich lead-free alloys," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 3, pp. 184-190, 2011.

Smit, David, "Pipemaking Metal Pipes - Part I: Metallurgy,"

Smith, R. W., and Raynor G. V., "The Effect of Liquid Media on the Grey Tin <==> White Tin Transformation in Commercially Pure Tin," Proceedings of the Physical Society, section B vol. 70 part 12, pp. 1135-1142, Dec. 1957.

Smith, R. W., "The Grey Tin <--> White Tin Transition in Tin-Mercury Alloys," Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 37 no. 10, pp. 1079-1084, Oct. 1959.

Smith, R. W., "The White Tin -> Grey Tin Transition in Tin-Mercury Alloys," Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 38 no. 5, pp. 588-592, May 1960.

Smith, Reginald W., "The alpha (Semiconductor) <==> beta (Metal) Transformation in Tin," Journal of the Less-Common Metals, vol. 114, pp. 69-80, 1985.

Smythe, J. A., "Notes on Ancient and Roman Tin and its Alloys with Lead," Transactions of the Newcomen Society, vol. 18, pp. 255-265, 1937-1938.

Stager, R. A., Balchan, A. S., and Drickamer, H. G., "High-Pressure Phase Transition in Metallic Tin," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 37 no. 5, pp. 1154, Sept. 1, 1962.

Styrkas, A. D., "Growth of Gray Tin Crystals," Inorganic Materials, vol. 39 no. 7, pp. 683-386, July 2003.

Swanson, Howard E., and Tatge, Eleanor, "Standard X-ray Diffraction Powder Patterns," National Bureau of Standards Circular 539, vol. 1, pp. 24-25, June 15, 1953.

Swanson, Howard E., and Fuyat, Ruth K., "Standard X-ray Diffraction Powder Patterns," National Bureau of Standards Circular 539, vol. 2, pp. 12-13, June 15, 1953.

Sweatman, Keith, Suenaga, Shoichi, and Nishimura, Tetsuro, "Suppression of Tin Pest in Lead-free Solders," IPC/JEDEC 8th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies , San Jose, CA, Apr. 18-20, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Tammann, G., and Dreyer, K. L., "Uber die Umwandlung von weissen in graues Zinn," Zeitschrift fur anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, vol. 199, pp. 97-108, 1931.

Tufte, O. N., and Ewald, A. W., "Gray Tin Single Crystals," Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Series II, vol. 3 no. 1, pp. 128, Jan 29, 1958.

Turnbull, David, "Role of Structural Impurities in Phase Transformations," Impurities and Imperfections, Chicago, IL, Oct. 30-Nov. 5, 1955, pp. 121-144.

van Arkel, A. E., and Koets, P., "Das Wesen der Rekristallisationskerne bei Metallen," Zeitschrift fur Physik, vol. 41 pp. 701-707, 1927.

Van Lent, P. H., "The Position of Gray Tin in the Tin-Mercury System," Acta Metallurgica , vol. 9 no. 2, pp. 125-128, Feb. 1961.

Van Lent, P. H., "The Preparation of Gray Tin Single Crystals by Transformation of Tin-Mercury Alloys," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 10 no. 11, pp. 1089-1100, Nov. 1962.

Van Vechten, J. A., "Quantum Dielectric Theory of Electronegativity in Covalent Systems. III. Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagrams, Heats of Mixing, and Distribution Coefficients," Physical Review B, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 1479-1507, Feb. 15, 1973.

Vnuk, F., "Preparation of Compact alpha-Tin Specimens," Journal of Crystal Growth , vol. 48 no. 3, pp. 486-488, Mar. 1980.

Vnuk, F., De Monte, A., and Smith, R. W., "The effect of pressure on the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature in tin and dilute Sn-Ge alloys," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 55 no. 12, pp. 4171-4176, June 15, 1984.

Weintraub, Bob, "Tin Disease and Ernst Julius Cohen (1869-1944)," pp. 31-32.

Werigin, N., Lewkojeff, J., and Tammann, G., "Uber die Ausflussgeschwindigkeit einiger Metalle," Annalen der Physik (Drude's Annalen), vol. 10 no. 3, pp. 647-654, 1903.

Werner, Max, "Metallographische Mittelungen aus dem Institut fur physikalische Chemie in Gottingen. LXXXV. Uber die Eigenschaftsanderungen bei den polymorphen Umwandlungen des Thalliums, Zinns, Zinks und Nickels," Zeitschrift fur Anorganische Chemie, vol. 83 no. 3, pp. 275-321, 1913.

Wetzel, E., "Bruchigwerden von aluminiumhaltigem Zinn," Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde , vol. 14 no. 8, pp. 335-336, Aug. 1922.

Wigand, Albert, "Uber die Spezifische Warme des Grauen Zinns und die Richarzsche Regel," Zeitschrift fur Elektrochemie, vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 38-39, Jan. 1, 1914.

Wigand, Albert, "Uber spezifische Warme und spezifisches Gewicht der allotropen Modifikationen fester Elemente," Annalen der Physik, vol. 22, pp. 64-98, 1907.

Williams, W. Lee, "Gray Tin Formation in Soldered Joints Stored at Low Temperatures," Symposium on Solder (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 189), Atlantic City, NJ, June 19-20, 1956, pp. 149-158.

Wolfson, R. G., Fine, M. E., and Ewald, A. W., "Transformation Studies of Gray Tin Single Crystals," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 31 no. 11, pp. 1973-1977, Nov. 1960.

Yang, Fuqian, and Li, J. C. M., "Deformation behavior of tin and some tin alloys," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 191-210, Mar. 2007.

Zak, Pavel, Tucan, Marek, and Kudlacek, Ivan, "Lead-free Car Electronics According to Updated ELV Directive," 2011 International Conference on Applied Electronics, Pilsen, Czech Republic, Sept. 7-8, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Zuo, Xiao-long, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "The influence of presetting a-Sn on the transformation of Sn at low temperature," 2013 14th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Dalian, China, Aug. 11-14, 2013, pp. 152-155.

Web Pages That Discuss Tin Pest
"Cure or treatment for tin disease," finishing.com.

"European directives vs. Tin Whiskers & Tin Pest," finishing.com .

"Lead-free solder and tin pests," finishing.com.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

Periodic Table of the Elements Atomic Radius

RoHS Report

Tin Pest

"Tin Pest," finishing.com.

"Tin Plague," Corrosion Club.

"Tin plating for very cold environments; alloying to avoid tin pest," finishing.com

Lasky, Ronald C., "Tin Pest: Still a Forgotten Concern in Lead Free Assembly," Dr. Lasky's Blog, Aug. 17, 2005.


dBi Corporation was a one-man test house (testing laboratory) based in Lexington, Kentucky, testing a wide variety of commercial electronic products for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD) under its ISO 17025 accreditation. dBi was founded in Winchester, Kentucky in 1995 by Donald R. Bush, shortly after he retired from 30 years service with IBM Lexington's/ Lexmark's EMC Lab. John R. Barnes, who'd worked with Don at IBM Lexington and Lexmark, bought dBi in 2002 after Don's death, and moved the company to Lexington, Kentucky. John closed dBi at 11:59pm EDT on September 30, 2013, because ObamaCrap had increased operating expenses to the point that we could no longer afford to remain in business.

We'd like to thank all of the clients who chose dBi to test their products from 1995 to 2013. Below is a brief summary of our accomplishments during the 18 years we were in business.

From 1995 to 2001, under Don Bush's ownership and operation, dBi:

From 2002 to 2013, under John Barnes' ownership and operation, dBi:

Go to Main Web Site Index Go to Full Standards Index Go to ITE Standards Index Go to Residential/ Commercial Standards Index Go to Industrial Standards Index
Go to Lab Equipment Standards Index Go to Audio/ Video Equipment Standards Index Go to Lamps/ Luminaires Standards Index Go to Appliance Standards Index
Last revised April 16, 2017.