Bibliography for Designing Lead-Free,
RoHS-Compliant, and WEEE-Compliant Electronics

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE
June 17, 2014
jrbarnes@iglou.com

As a follow-on to writing Robust Electronic Design Reference Book, Volumes I and II in 2003, in late 2004 I started seriously researching:

My plan was to write a Chapter 20.5 for my books, in the form of a web page that would be freely-available, summarizing the:

needed to manufacture RoHS-compliant electronic products. The transition from tin/lead-based to lead-free electronics looked like it would be very painful and expensive. But I didn't think that the European Union would be so stupid as to issue legislation that would turn all electronics to crap!

In late 2012, 6 years after the RoHS Directive went into effect on July 1, 2006, manufacturers finally seemed to be approaching the quality level (good out-of-the-box) we had up through late 2005 with tin/lead-based electronics. But the reliability and longevity of RoHS-compliant electronics are pitiful compared to what we had with tin/lead-based electronics. I've heard many stories of RoHS-compliant electronics, purchased new with 1-year warranties, that died after just 13 months of use. With a lot of searching, we sometimes can find new electronic products with 3-year manufacturers' warranties. But they are rare-- 90-day and 1-year manufacturers' warranties are much more common nowadays. And the last 3 ADSL modems that I've gotten from the phone company all crapped out between 13 and 14 months after they were installed....

In the 9-1/2 years since I started this study, I've:

doing research on these subjects, and collecting some 21,800+ documents on lead-free electronics. My library on lead-free electronics now takes up over half of my office and has overflowed into the livingroom, filling three bookcases and eight file cabinets with:

In this mass of material I have found tens of thousands of references to failure modes of lead-free solders, that were unknown or extremely rare in tin/lead solders:

The higher processing temperatures of lead-free solders, along with all of these new failure modes, have dramatically reduced the quality, reliability, and longevity of RoHS- compliant electronics-- produced since early 2006-- versus equivalent tin/lead- based electronics that were manufactured from about 1950 through 2005.

Based on my reading, and several years of helping clients develop RoHS-compliant electronic products, I believe that: If you buy a lead-free RoHS-compliant electronic device-- and if it works when you first turn it on-- it should be safe and fully-functional for at least one year. If you are lucky, it may even last a couple of years longer... versus the 20+ years use that we can easily get out of many tin/lead-based electronic products!

For myself and my companies, in early 2005 I adopted the following version of the "Precautionary Principle", which so far has worked very well for me:

  1. Don't buy-- or fly in-- anything manufactured in Europe.
  2. Don't buy new electronic/electrical stuff, if you can find an older item (manufactured before 2006) that will do the job.
  3. If you buy a new, expensive electronic/electrical item, get the longest warranty that you can for it.
  4. If you buy a new, inexpensive electronic/electrical item, buy at least three, to give yourself a fighting chance that one of them will still work when you need it.
  5. If you are replacing an older, working unit, HANG ON TO THE OLD ONE!

Thus I have been very selective about buying any electrical or electronic stuff since year-end 2005. If I can find what I want as used, refurbished, or "new old stock" (NOS) on ebay or at a hamfest-- manufactured before 2006 (when the RoHS Directive went into effect)-- I feel comfortable just going ahead and buying it. If what I want is only available as new items, manufactured since the beginning of 2006, I do some hard thinking: Do I absolutely need this item? Will it pay for itself within the first three months that I will own it? Or do I just want the item? In many cases I'll say "Screw it. I'm not going to waste my money on lead-free crap". If I still really need the item, I will investigate various candidates based on the features/ functions/ etc. that are important to me, and sort the list by key factors to determine the desireability of each candidate. And if I discover that a candidate was designed or made in Europe, it automatically goes to the bottom of the list. Then I start working down through the list, top-to-bottom, checking for availability, sources, and prices. Once I have found three or so good candidates, I dig up all the information that I can find about them: specifications, datasheets, manuals, warranties, application notes, people's comments/ complaints about them, etc., If several candidates look like they will meet my needs, I usually make my final choice based on:

  1. A local store has the item-- so that they can take the unit out of the box in the store and prove to me that it will at least power up-- before I take it home.
  2. The longest manufacturer's warranty.

As a result, when I am considering buying some new electronic item, or something such as a car or appliance that contains electronics, I usually spend about 1 day doing research for every $100 that I expect to spend.

In July 2011 (5 years after the RoHS Directive went into effect), I made my first purchase of over $50 worth of RoHS-compliant electronics. I didn't want to, but when my 12-year old main computer monitor (a Sony Trinitron GDM-500PS) crapped out, I didn't have much choice. I first went to the public library, and checked Consumer Reports going back 3 years. Acer, Apple, Dell, Lenovo, and ViewSonic all had 2 or more wide-screen LCD monitors that were given high marks by Consumer Reports. Then I went around town, checking local stores to see which brands/models they carried. I then spent 4 days, researching some 50 models of >= 21-inch LCD monitors on the stores' and manufacturers' web sites. Comparing the features of the different models, the decisive factors for me came down to overall width, manufacturer's warranty period, and whether the monitor came with the video and monitor cables. I came down to a "short list" of 5 ViewSonic monitors, any one of which would meet my needs very well. Then I called the local stores, and found one which had several ViewSonic VX2450wm-LED monitors in stock. I bought two of them, with 3-year manufacturer's warranty, for $400 plus sales tax. It took me about an hour to get both monitors installed on my computer and working at 1920 x 1080 resolution (the primary monitor at 24-bit color and the secondary monitor at 16-bit color). So far, both monitors have been working okay for two years. We shall see how they do long term for reliability and longevity...

Maybe 1% of the documents that I have collected on these subjects say "Lead is bad. Remove it at any cost." (I've seen estimates that complying with the RoHS Directive will cost between $40,000,000,000 and $100,000,000,000 worldwide, and will cause 5 to 6 times as much environmental damage as if it had not been enacted.) About half of the documents say "here are ways that we can try to comply with the RoHS Directive and its clones, by investing huge amounts of engineering and manufacturing time, money, and management focus." But the gist of the rest of the documents that I have collected is:

Manufacturers of lead-free/ RoHS-compliant electronics-- and their lawyers-- may want to carefully study Article 7 in the European Product Liability Directive ( Directive 85/374/EEC + Directive 1999/34/EC) which offers this defense: "The producer shall not be liable as a result of this Directive if he proves... (d) that the defect is due to compliance of the product with mandatory regulations issued by the public authorities... "

The RoHS Directive has been in place for nearly 8 years now, and so far I haven't read about any big fires, airplane crashes, or other major disasters that have been traced to lead-free electronics. Although there is now considerable evidence pointing to tin whiskers causing some of the Sudden Unintended Accelleration (SUA) problems with Toyota vehicles....

Technology Forecasters did a study in late 2007/early 2008 for the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) on "Economic Impact of the European Union RoHS Directive on the Electronics Industry". Page 48 of this report, which came out January 21, 2008, said that in its first 1-1/2 years the RoHS Directive had cost the worldwide electronics industry $38.25 billion ($38,250,000,000), with an on-going cost of $3.7 billion ($3,700,000,000) per year!

Personally, since the RoHS Directive went into effect, I've restricted myself to buying maybe two or three pieces of new test equipment or computer stuff that costs more than $20 each per year. But I only do so if I expect the item to pay for itself within 3 months. I also treat all new electronics very tenderly, and try not to drop them onto any hard surfaces. If this new equipment is AC powered, I only plug it into a live outlet when I or someone else is around. If it is battery powered, I take out the batteries whenever the new electronic equipment is not in use. (These precautions play hell with clocks, by the way.) If the item costs less than $20, I'll probably buy three or more, to have a fighting chance that at least one unit will work when I need it.

Early in my study, I decided to pull this information together as a web page, to make it:

I figured that this should be a one-month project. But one week later I moved this bibliography into its own web page, because it was 15 pages long, and I figured it would be of interest only to really serious researchers... Well, this bibliography is now 1,529 pages long. I've spent thousands of hours searching the Internet, and joined four more technical societies to get access to their online databases. So far on this project, I've made 369 trips to 11 libraries in Kentucky, and 182 trips to 85 science/ engineering libraries in 25 other states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Washington) and one province (Ontario), For example, the following picture shows some 330+ papers (13,697 through 14,028) that I collected on 6 trips in three weeks to libraries in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia...

In a typical month I'll make 4 to 5 trips to university libraries, and spend a number of hours at home checking IEEE XPLORE on line, checking 128 to 209 magazines/ journals and the proceedings of 136 to 181 conferences/ symposiums for the latest information on:

This bibliography now has:

I started the research in my personal and company libraries, and on the Internet with my own computer, using: When I check out a new library, in addition to searching through their collection, I like to see if they have any full-text engineering/ science databases such as: I'm still hunting for hundreds of papers and magazine articles whose titles have popped up during my searches, but that I haven't been able to find yet. If you have leads on any of these, please E-mail me at jrbarnes@iglou.com, and I will acknowledge your help at the bottom of this web page.

If a reference can be downloaded from the Internet for free, I've included a link from its title to the appropriate web page. Some web sites require you to register online before accessing some of their documents. If a book, CDROM, paper, or report is in print, I show the list price and include a link to at least one source. Even if an item is out of print, you might be able to buy it from one of the sources listed on my web page Internet Sources for Electronics Books, Standards, Manuals, Journals, and Magazines.

My web page, Designing Lead-Free, RoHS-Compliant, and WEEE-Compliant Electronics, where I started to summarize this huge mass of data, is 55 pages long-- with only 4 out of 20 sections reasonably complete. Like my books, both of these web pages are primarily aimed at electrical and electronic engineers who design and develop electronic products and electronic equipment for a living. We face more challenges than ever before:

I try to update this web page once each month. Please send any critiques, corrections, and pointers to additional sources to me at jrbarnes@iglou.com.

This web page is divided into:


Government Regulations on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 9/11/2011)

The United States (US) passed the Toxic Substances Control Act in 1976, giving the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the power to regulate the manufacturing and importing of toxic substances into the US.

The European Union has very strict laws on product liability. In general, if a person can prove that someone was killed or injured-- or their property was damaged-- by a product, the "producer" must fully compensate the injured party. Even if the producer had only a tiny fraction of the overall responsibility for the injury! Underlaying numerous Product Safety Directives (EN 60950, EN 60065, EN 61010, and EN 60601-1-2 to name just a few) is the Product Liability Directive ( 85/374/EEC), which was published in volume 28 issue L210 pages 29-33 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on August 7, 1985.

This Directive was amended by Directive 1999/34/EC in volume 42 issue L141 pages 20-21 of the OJ on June 4, 1999. The consolidated text of these two Directives is available on the EUR-Lex website. One defense that the producer (manufacturer, importer, or the person whose name or trade mark is on the product) can use is in Article 7: "The producer shall not be liable as a result of this Directive if he proves... (d) that the defect is due to compliance of the product with mandatory regulations issued by the public authorities... "

Japan passed the Act on the Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources Act No. 48 of 1991 (Japan "RoHS") in 2000.

The European Union published the End of Life Vehicles Directive (ELV Directive, 2000/53/EC) in volume 43 issue L269 pages 34-42 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on October 21, 2000, and has amended it a number of times since then, This Directive took effect on July 1, 2002, and with some exceptions (Annex II), totally bans the use of (Article 4.2(a)):

in vehicles. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) in the United Kingdom has gotten the impurity limits for the ELV Directive also to be applied to the RoHS Directive.

The European Union published the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive ( RoHS Directive, 2002/95/EC) in volume 46 issue L37 pages 19-23 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on February 13, 2003. This Directive took effect on July 1, 2006, and with some exceptions (Annex) totally bans the use of (Article 4.1):

in electronic and electrical products and equipment.

Article 2.3 explicitly states that spare parts for the repair of electrical and electronic equipment put on the market before July 1, 2006 do not fall under the RoHS Directive. Nor does the reuse of electrical and electronic equipment put on the market before July 1, 2006. I.e., the electrical equipment is already in the European Union, and out of the manufacturer's control as of July 1, 2006. Owners of equipment acquired before this date may repair or upgrade their equipment, to extend its lifetime, instead of being forced to discard it.

Council Decision COM(2004) 606, adopted Sept. 23, 2004), amends the Annex of the RoHS Directive to permit-- in any application that was not already exempted--a homogenous material to contain a maximum of:

The RoHS Directive was amended 12 times between 2005 and 2010 by Commission Decisions, and once by a Directive, mainly adding exemptions for specific uses of these materials.

The European Union published the RoHS Recast (RoHS 2.0), Directive 2011/65/EU in volume 54 issue L174 pages 88-110 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on July 1, 2011. It takes effect on January 3, 2013, and brings in:

To help manufacturers, importers, and others understand their responsibilities, risks, and liabilities under European Directives, in 2000 the European Commission published the "Guide to the Implementation of Directives Based on New Approach and Global Approach". This is commonly called the "Blue Book", or "Blue Guide", and can help you understand just how European authorities will interpret these Directives when it is unclear whether/how a Directive applies to a specific product or situation.

The DTI has published a draft of the United Kingdom's version of the RoHS Directive as "Part IV - The RoHS Directive - draft implementing Regulations."

The official version of the UK law came out as Statutory Instrument 2006 No. 1463,

The DTI has also published draft Guidance Notes for the RoHS Directive, dated July 2004.

A revised draft RoHS REGULATIONS Government Guidance Notes came out in August 2005.

The final RoHS REGULATIONS Government Guidance Notes came out in November 2005.

The DTI published the RoHS Enforcement Guidance Document, Version 1 in May 2006.

The European Union published the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC) in volume 46 issue L37 pages 24-38 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on February 13, 2003. Directive 2003/108/EC, published in volume 46 issue L345 pages 106-107 of the OJ on December 31, 2003, amends Article 9 of the WEEE Directive with regard to the financing of WEEE for businesses. The WEEE Directive:

The DTI has published a draft of the United Kingdom's version of the WEEE Directive as "Part II - The WEEE Directive - draft implementing Regulations."

The DTI has also published draft Guidance Notes for the WEEE Directive, dated July 2004. According to these Guidance Notes, producers must register with the (UK) National Clearing House by August 13, 2005 (pages 4, 20-21).

Commission Decision 2004/249/EC is a questionaire for Member States of the EU, on reporting the implementation of the WEEE Directive.

Commision Decision 2005/369/EC on rules for Member States to monitor compliance with the WEEE Directive.

The European Union also bans many flame retardants that might be used in printed circuit boards (PCB's) under the Restrictions on the Marketing and Use of Certain Dangerous Substances and Preparations Directive (Directive 76/769/EEC) which has been amended 39 times since it was published in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on September 27, 1976.

The European Union published the Batteries and Accumulators Containing Certain Dangerous Substances Directive (Battery Directive, 91/157/EEC) in volume xx issue L78 pages 38-41 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on March 26, 1991. Directive 98/101/EC, published in volume 42 issue L1 pages 1-2 of the OJ on January 5, 1999, clarifies the limitations on mercury in batteries. The Battery Directive permits lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries to be used in electrical and electronic equipment as long as they contain less than 0.0005% by weight of mercury. Button cells and batteries made from button cells are permitted to contain up to 2% mercury by weight (Article 3.1).

The European Union published the Energy-using Products (EuP) Directive (EuP Directive, 2005/32/EC) in Volume 48 issue L191 pages 29-58 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on July 22, 2005. This Directive took effect on August 11, 2005. It sets up a framework for regulating products that:

A major concern is the total energy required:

The European Union published a new Batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators (new Batteries Directive, 2006/66/EC) in volume 49 issue L266 pages 1-14 of the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) on September 26, 2006. This Directive takes effect on September 26, 2009. Article 4 places limits on the mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) content of batteries, but most of the Directive is concerned with collecting and recycling.

China's Ministry of Information Industry has drafted a Management Methods for the Prevention and Control of Pollutants from Electronic Information Products law, often referred to as "China RoHS ". This law also bans:

in products using electronic information technology.

Grace Lin's web site has an unofficial translation of "Administrative Measure on the Control of Pollution Caused by Electronic Information Products," dated Mar. 2, 2006.

China RoHS actually consists of several interconnected laws: "Measures for Administration of the Pollution Control of Electronic Information Products," May 9, 2006.

Another unofficial translation by the AeA is Management Methods for Controlling Pollution by Electronic Information Products."

"Electronic Information Products Classification and Explanations," Mar. 16, 2006.

"General Rule of Environment-Friendly Use Period of Electronic Information Products, Draft,"

"Marking for Control of Pollution Caused by Electronic Information Products," Nov. 6, 2006.

"Packaging Recycling Marks," Jan. 1, 2002.

"Requirements for Concentration Limits for Certain Hazardous Substances in Electronic Information Products," Nov. 6, 2006.

"Testing Methods for Regulated Substances in Electronic Information Products, Draft,"

California passed Proposition 65, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 in 1986. This act affects companies who:

Electrical/electronic products which are handled frequently, such as portable stereos and hair dryers, may require a warning label on units sold in California. The concern is trace amounts of listed chemicals, such as lead or cadmium, in the power cord or housing. If users handle the unit, then eat without washing their hands, they could ingest some of the chemical(s). If the total exposure to any listed chemical exceeds 0.1% of the amount that could have an "observable effect", then the manufacturer can be fined $2,500 per day per violation. Needless to say, some lawyers and law firms in California have found filing Proposition 65 lawsuits to be extremely profitable...

California adopted Senate Bill No. 20 (SB20) on September 25, 2003, banning the use of certain materials in some types of electronic equipment, and setting up a system for the collection and recycling of certain types of electronic waste.

California adopted Senate Bill No. 50 (SB50) on September 29, 2003, amending SB20 in a number of areas, but the combination is usually still referred to as "SB20". SB20 and SB50 create a number of bureaucratic hurdles and snares for anyone who sells-- or wants to sell-- video display devices with screens larger than 4 inches diagonal (with some exceptions, SB50, pages 9, 11; SB20, page 9) to consumers in California:

California Legal Council's digest of SB20, on page 6, 25214.10 says "The department shall adopt regulations ... that prohibit an electronic device from being sold or offered for sale in this state (my italics) if the electronic device is prohibited from being sold or offered for sale in the European Union ... to the extent that Directive 2002/95/EC ... prohibits that sale due to the presence of certain heavy metals". On page 13, 42474(c) says "Civil liability in an amount of up to twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) may be administratively imposed by the board against manufacturers for failure to comply with this chapter...".

California Legal Council's digest of SB50, on page 2, (3) says "The act requires each manufacturer of an electronic device who sells a covered electronic device in this state to submit an annual report to the board on the number of electronic devices sold by the manufacturer". On page 6, 25214.10.1 specifies the information that a manufacturer must suppy to retailers and the State Board of Equalization. On page 9, 42463(f) defines the "covered electronic devices". On page 10, 42463(n) defines "manufacturer". On page 11, 42463(t) defines "video display device". On pages 11 and 12, 42464.6(a) gives the Department of Toxic Substances Control the authority to determine what is, or is not, a "covered electronic device". On pages 13 and 14, 42465.2 specifies the information that the manufacturer must supply to the California Integrated Waste Management Board, consumers, and the Department of Toxic Substances Control.

For the actual implementation of SB20 and SB50, California's Health and Safety Code Section 25214.9-25214.10.2, under 25214.10(a) effectively bans lead, cadmium, mercury, and hexavalent chromium in "covered electronic devices" to the limits permitted by the RoHS Directive by January 1, 2007, or the effective date of the RoHS Directive, whichever comes later.

Furthermore, California's Public Resources Code Section 42463, 42463(f) defines "covered electronic device", 42463(n) defines "manufacturer", and 42463(t) defines "video display device".

California's actual regulations implementing SB20 and SB50 are in Emergency Regulations. 18660.5(23) has this snare for manufacturers-- "These catagories include, but are not limited to, (my italics) ...". 18660.41 specifies information that manufacturers must report to the California Integrated Waste Management Board, while 18660.42 specifies information that manufacturers must provide to consumers.

Washington passed Engrossed Substitute House Bill 2488 (EGHB2488) on March 29, 2004 to establish a statewide recycling system for waste electronics.

Maine adopted LD 743 (amended by HP 549) on May 14, 2003. This law bans disposal of CRT's in landfills after January 1, 2006.

In late 2005/ early 2006 Maine adopted an electronic waste law under 38 MRSA Section 1610 to establish a statewide recycling system for waste electronics.

Massachusetts, under 310 CMR 19 paragraph 19.017(3)(c), has not permitted cathode ray tubes (CRT's) to be deposited in landfills, or incinerated, since April 1, 2000.

Minnesota adopted H.F. No. 882 in 2003. This law bans disposal of CRT's in landfills after July 1, 2005.

Maryland adopted House Bill 575 on May 10, 2005. This law requires computer manufacturers that manufactured more than 1,000 computers per year, averaged over the last three years, to register with the (Maryland) Department of the Environment if they wish to sell new computers in the state after December 31, 2005. The initial registration fee is $5,000. The registration fee then drops to $500 per year if the manufacturer has implemented a "computer takeback program". Otherwise the registration fee continues at $5,000 per year. This law will expire December 31, 2010 unless it is renewed by the legislature.


Magazines/Newsletters on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 3/29/2005)

Advanced Packaging

circuitnet

CircuitTree

Circuits Assembly

Electronics Manufacture and Test

ElectronicsWeekly

Global SMT & Packaging

Journal of Electronic Materials

LEAD-FREE Connection $195/year, published quarterly.

Lead-Free Magazine

New Electronics

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology

Surface Mount Technology


Mailing Lists on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 5/27/2009)

Halogenfree mailing list for subscription; also see IPC Halogenfree Archives

Leadfree mailing list for subscription; also see IPC LeadFree Archives

NoLeadTech mailing list for subscription; also see IPC NoLeadTech Archives

RoHS for subscription

Tin Whiskers mailing list


Web Sites on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 5/27/2009)

AIM Lead free

Database for Solder Properties with Emphasis on New Lead-free Solders Release 4.0

Dionics

E3/E4 Initiative

EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and EC Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)

Eco-Info & Lead (Pb)-Free: Lead (Pb)-Free Solutions from Texas Instruments

Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility

Electronics Weekly

elfnet

eRecycle.org

Green SupplyLine

HDP User Group

Infopool - On-line Information Resource about Lead-free Solders and Technologies

International Conference on Lead Free Electronics "Towards implementation of the RHS Directive"

International National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI)

IPC Halogenfree Archives

IPC LeadFree Archives

IPC LoLeadTech Archives

Lead-free & RoHS Directive compliance services

Lead-Free Electronics

Lead-Free Forum

Lead-Free Information

Lead-Free Magazine

Lead-Free Solder Testing for High Reliability (Project 1)

Lead-Free Solutions: Making Lead-Free a Reality Today

leadfreesoldering.com

Materials Technology @ TMS

NASA-DOD Lead-Free Electronics (Project 2)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI)

National Metal Finishing Resource Center

National Physical Laboratory

News on Lead-free

Pb-Free

PCB Update

Printed Wiring Board Resource Center

RoHS

RoHS-International

RoHS Simplified (Department of Trade and Industry).

SMART Group

Speedline Technologies White Papers

Texas Instruments Quality & Pb-Free

Toxics Use Reduction Institute

WEEE Forum

WEEE recycling Network

WEICHLOETEN.de

www.envirowise.gov.uk

www.SMTinfo.net


Books on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 1/8/2014)

10th Report on Carcinogens. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2002.

ASM Engineered Materials Reference Book. Metals Park, OH: ASM International, 1989. ISBN 0-87170-350-5.

Electronic Materials Handbook, Volume 1: Packaging. Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 1989. ISBN 0-87170-285-1. $140.00 list price.

Equilibrium Data for Tin Alloys. Greenford, Middlesex, UK: Tin Reasearch Institute, 1949.

Handbook of Aluminum, 3rd Edition. St. Louis, MO: Metal Goods Service Centers.

Materials Used for Brazing Welding, Soldering Arc Cutting, and Metallizing. Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 9-237/1. Department of the Air Force Technical Order TO 34W4-1-10. May 1960.

Metal Statistics 1998, Nonferrous Edition, 90th Edition. New York: Cahners, 1998. $95.00 list price.

Metals Handbook, 1939 Edition. Cleveland, OH: American Society for Metals, 1939.

Metals Handbook, 9th Edition, Volume 2: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals. Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1979.

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Kutztown, PA: Hazardous Materials Publishing, 1994.

Rational Use of Potentially Scarce Metals. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Scientic Affairs Division, 1976.

Solder Alloy Data: Mechanical properties of solders and soldered joints. International Tin Research Institute, 1986 (I.T.R.I. Publication No. 656).

Soldering Manual. New York: American Welding Society, 1959.

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase I. ACI Technologies, July 30, 2009.

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase II. The Benchmarking and Best Practices Center of Excellence, May 31, 2010.

The Mechanism of Phase Transformation in Metals. London: The Institute of Metals, 1956.

The New Quick Pocket Reference for Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Solder Assembly. Cranston, RI: AIM, 2008.

The Properties of Tin. Greenford, Middlesex, England: Tin Research Institute, 1954.

The Quick Pocket Reference for Solder Assembly. Cranston, RI: AIM, 2000.

The Quick Pocket Reference for Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Solder Assembly. Cranston, RI: AIM, 2008.

The Welding, Brazing, and Soldering of Copper & Its Alloys . Radlett, Herts.: Copper Development Association, 1952.

Abbott, David, Inorganic Chemistry. London: Mills & Boon, 1965.

Addison, W. E., The Allotropy of the Elements. London: Oldbourne Press, 1964.

Allen, B. M., Soldering and Welding. New York: Drake, 1975.

Andrae, A. S. G., Global Life Cycle Impact Assessments of Material Shifts: The Example of a Lead-free Electronics Industry. London: Springer, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84882-660-1. $129.00 list price.

Andrews, D. R., Soldering Brazing Welding and Adhesives. The Institution of Production Engineers, 1978.

Antler, Morton, Contact Technology for Electronic Connectors. (lecture notes for a class given at Lexmark International on May 15-16, 1996).

Aristotle (translated by Dowdall, L. D.), The Works of Aristotle Translated into English: de Mirabilibus Auscultationibus. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909.

Avner, Sidney H., Introduction to Physical Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.

Bakoglu, H. B., Circuits, Interconnections, and Packaging for VLSI. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1990. ISBN 0-201-06008-6.

Barber, Clifford L., Solder... its fundamentals and usage, 2nd Edition. Kester Solder, 1961.

Barnes, John R., Robust Electronic Design Reference Book, Volumes 1 and 2. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-4020-7739-4. $430.00 list price. This web page and its companion web page Designing Lead-Free, RoHS-Compliant, and WEEE-Compliant Electronics supplement these two books, and when completed may be considered as Chapter 20.5 in Volume 1.

Barrett, C. S., and Massalski, T. B., Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles and Data . New York: Pergamon, 1980.

Barrett, Charles S., Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles, and Data . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943.

Barry, B. T. K., and Thwaites, C. J., Tin and Its Alloys and Compounds. New York: Halsted Press, 1983.

Bath, Jasbir, Lead-Free Soldering. New York: Springer, 2007. ISBN 978-0-387-32466-1. $129.00 list price.

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Rose, Robert M., Shepard, Lawrence A., and Wulff, John, Structure and Properties of Materials, Volume IV: Electronic Properties . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

Rosenthal, Murray P., Mini/Micro Soldering and Wire Wrapping. Rochelle Park, NJ: Hayden, 1978.

Safranek, William H., The Properties of Electrodeposited Metals and Alloys, 2nd Edition . Orlando, FL: American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, 1986. ISBN 0-936569-00-X.

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Schapiro, Mark, Exposed: The Toxic Chemistry of Everyday Products and What's at Stake for American Power. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1603580581. $16.95 list price.

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Seitz, Frederick, The Physics of Metals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943.

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Ph. D. and Master's Theses on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 4/3/2014)

Abtew, Mulugeta, Effect of Cooling Rate, Silver Composition, Dwell Time and Solder Joint Size on the Reliability of Tin-Silver-Copper Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

Adeogba, Tonye, Effect of Reflow Variables on the Nanoscale Mechanical Properties of Lead Free Solders. Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, Dec. 2009.

Alipour, Manijeh Mohammad, Thermal Diffusivity Determination in Sn-Based Lead-Free Solder Alloys . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL, 2011.

Allenby, Braden R., Design for environment: Implementing industrial ecology. Ph. D. Thesis for Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, May 1992.

Al-Momani, Emad Shehadeh, Reliability Modeling of Lead-Free Electronics under Thermal Cycling Conditions. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2011.

Anastasio, Onofrio A., An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead-Free Microelectronic Solders . Master's Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. June 2002. ASIN B0006S1AZU.

Anglin, Benjamin Stewart, Investigation and Characterization of Thermoelastic Eigenstresses Near Microstructural Features and the Application to Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2012.

Anson, Scott J., Analysis of Lead Free Tin-Silver-Copper and Tin-Lead Solder Wetting Reactions. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Arfaei, Babak, The Effects of Nucleation and Solidification Mechanisms on the Microstructure and Thermomechanical Response of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

Athavale, Saurabh N., A Comparison of Different Mechanical Testing Protocols on the Reliability of a Pb-free Solder System. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2008.

Athavale, Saurabh, Effect of Cu Concentration and Cooling Rate on Microstructure of Sn-3.9Ag-XCu. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Bai, Guofeng, Low-Temperature Sintering of Nanoscale Silver Paste for Semiconductor Device Interconnection. Ph. D. Thesis for Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, Oct. 2005.

Bangalore, Sudhindra Nagaraj, Evaluation of conductive adhesives for Surface Mount Technology. Master's Thesis for University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, June 1992.

Barry, Nathan, Lead-Free Solders for High-Reliability Applications: High-Cycle Fatigue Studies. Doctor of Engineering Thesis for University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, Oct. 23, 2008.

Beaumont, Matthew Hall, Characterization of Indalloy 227 Non Lead Solder. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Dec. 1999.

Becker, James Hall, Crystal Growth and Electrical and Optical Properties of Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Cornell University, June 1957.

Belbase, Hemant, Lead Free Soldering Materials, Reliability and Process Optimization . Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Oct. 25, 2000.

Benedict, Michael Scott, Heterogeneous Nucleation of Sn in Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Berger, Barry Nathaniel, Study of the Use of the Weibull Distribution and Compliance of the Reliability of Lead-Free Solder in Accelerated Thermal Cycling Through Varying Solder Volume, Pitch, and Thermal Range with Previously Established Materials Models. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2012.

Berrios, Antonio Tavarez, Modeling the Reflow Process of an Actual PCB. Master's Thesis for University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR, 2001.

Bhalerao, Vikram, Process Development and Reliability Study for 01005 Components in a Lead-Free Assembly Environment. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2008.

Bhardwaj, Divya, Development of Lead Free Thermal Fuse Wires Using Ohno Continuous Casting. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2008.

Bhave, Aniket, A Leaded and Lead-Free Solder Paste Evaluation Screening Procedure . Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Bierman, Matthew John, Dislocations in One-Dimensional Semiconductor Crystals: Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, 2009.

Bloomer, Tamara Ellis, Microstructural and mechanical properties of a novel lead-free solder . Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 1999.

Boesenberg, Adam James, Development of Al, Mn, & Zn doped Sn-Ag-Cu solders for electronic assembly, Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2011.

Bowers, Trevor S., Microstructural Evolution of Nickel-Enhanced Tin-Copper Solder Joints on Nickel/Gold and Immersion Silver PCB Finishes. Master's Thesis for University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntville, AL, 2006.

Brenner, Sidney S., The Growth and Mechanical Properties of Metal Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, May 1957.

Bruno, Felix, An Experimental Study on Voids in Area Array Devices for Mixed Alloy Assemblies. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Buchovecky, Eric J., Numerical Simulation of Stress Generation and Whisker Growth in Sn Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2010.

Bukhari, Sarfaraz, Evaluation of the Effects of Processing Conditions on Shear Strength in Pb-Free Surface Mount Assembly. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2004.

Busta, Heinz, Uniaxial-tensile-stress-modified Galvanomagnetic Properties of Gray Tin . Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1974.

Caputo, Antonio, Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) Formation. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2010.

Chada, Srinivas, Effect of Processing Parameters and Thermal Cycling on the Microstructure and Strength of Eutectic Sn-Ag Solder on Cu. Ph. D. Thesis for Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, May 1998.

Chae, Seung-Hyun, Electromigration and Thermomigration Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Joints for Advanced Packaging Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, May 2010.

Chaloupka, Andrew Charles, Lead-Free Electronics Use and Repair Dynamic Simulation. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Chan, Yuen Sing, Investigation into Characteristics of Thermal Fatigue Modeling of Lead-Free Solder Joints and Optimization of Temperature Cycling Profile. Ph. D. Thesis for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Jan. 2011.

Chandler, Gary Jesse Howard, Growth of Whiskers in the Indium-Tin Alloy System and the effect of Elastic Strain on Tc in alpha Indium-Tin. Master's Thesis for Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Aug. 1972.

Chang, Won, CSP Drop Test Performance Comparison for Different Solder Ball Materials . Master's Thesis for San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, May 2005.

Chao, Huang-Lin, Electromigration Enhanced Kinetics of Cu-Sn Intermetallic Compounds in Pb Free Solder Joints and Cu Low-k Dual Damascene Processing Using Step and Flash Imprint Lithography. Ph. D. Thesis for the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, May 2009.

Chaware, Raghunandan, Underfill Process Development for Lead Free Flip Chip Assembly. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2004.

Chen, Kai, Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray Laue microdiffraction studies of electromigration in Al (Cu) interconnects and Pb-free solder joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2009.

Cheng, Jing, Tin Whiskers in Electronic Packaging: Mechanism and Modeling. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 2011.

Chennagiri, Gurudutt, Rework of Lead-Free Area Array Packages Assembled on Ultra-thin Flexible Substrates. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Chin, Erica, Templated Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-segmented Nanowires for Sensor and Optical Device Applications. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2009.

Chin, Melida, Electrical Contact Resistance of Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive Assemblies in Microelectronics Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2005.

Choi, Daechul, Statistical and Physical Analyses of Electromigration-induced Failure in Lead-free Flip Chip Solder Joints. Ph.D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Choi, Sunglak, An Investigation of Aging Kinetics and Creep Deformation in Composite Solders with In-Situ Particulate Reinforcements. Master's Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 1997.

Choi, Sunglak, Studies on In-Situ Particulate Reinforced Sn-Ag Composite Solders Relevant to Thermomechanical Fatigue Issues. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2001.

Choi, Woojin, Reliability of Pb-free Solders in Electronic Packaging Technology . Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2002.

Choubey, Anupam, Microstructural Changes Under Isothermal Aging and Their Influence on Thermal Fatigue Reliability for Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Solder Joints, Including Microstructural Changes Under Isothermal Aging in Mixed Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2007.

Choudhuri, Deep, Influence of Nano-structured Chemicals on the Microstructures and Mechanical Reliability of Lead-Free Tin-Based Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, MI, 2009.

Ciocci, Richard C., Assessing the Migration to Lead-Free Electronic Products. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2001.

Clore, Nicholas G., Identification and Counting Procedure for Tin Whiskers, Hillocks, and Other Surface Defects. Master's Thesis for Purdue University, Hammond, IN, Dec. 2011.

Collins, Andrew, Corrosion Inhibition for an Aluminum Substrate Bonded with an Electrically Conductive Adhesive. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2003.

Courey, Karim J., An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, May 2008.

Crandall, Erika R., Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2012.

Crandall, Michael Adam, Effect of Intermetallic Growth on Durability of High Temperature Solders (SnAg, SAC305, SAC+Mn, SnAg+Cu Nano) in Thermal and Vibration Environments . M.S. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, 2011.

Crum II, John Alan, Production of Tin and Tin-based Alloy Spheres via Multi-Orifice Uniform Droplet Spraying. Master's Thesis for Northeastern University, Boston, MA, Apr. 2012.

Cuddalorepatta, Gayatri, Evolution of the Microstructure and Viscoplastic Behavior of Microscale SAC305 Solder Joints as a Function of Mechanical Fatigue Damage. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Dandu, Pridhvi, Finite Element Modeling on Electromigration of Solder Joints in Wafer Level Packages. Master's Thesis for Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, Aug. 2009.

Dang, Tung C., Lead-Free Solders in Surface Mount Electronic Assemblies: Designs for Quality and Reliability. Master's Thesis for California State University, Dominguez Hills, CA, Fall 2011.

Desrochers, Brigitte, Reliability of Soldered Joints for Aerospace Applications. Master's Thesis for Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2007.

Deubzer, Otmar, Explorative Study into the Sustainable Use and Substitution of Soldering Metals in Electronics: Ecological and Economical Consequences of the Ban of Leas in Electronics and Lessons to Be Learned for the Future. Graad van Doktor (Ph. D.) Thesis for Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft, Nederland, 2007.

Dhakal, Ramji, Failure Mechanism of Lead-Free Sn-Ag-Cu Solder BGA Interconnects. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Dhakal, Ramji, Microstructure Based Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Failure Mechanism of Pb-Free BGA Interconnects. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2008.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, Mitigation Strategies of Tin(Sn) Whisker Growth, Ph. D. Thesis for Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, December 19, 2009.

Ding, Fei, Flip Chip and Lid Attachment Assembly Process Development. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 15, 2006.

Ding, Min, Investigation of Electromigration Reliability of Solder Joint in Flip-Chip Packages. Ph. D. Thesis for the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, Aug. 2007.

Dong, Jaimee Ilene, The Effects of the Transition from Tin-lead to Lead-free Solder on Metal Flow in the United States. Ph. D. Thesis for Yale University, New Haven, CT, May 2008.

Dudek, Martha A., Microstructure, Mechanical and Oxidation Behavior of RE-containing Pb-free Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2009.

Edington, Joe Don, Development and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Coatings Deposited by Spontaneous Processes on Metallic Substrates. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Missouri - Rolla, Rolla, MS, 2004.

Ege, Efe Sinan, Thermo-mechanical Properties and Integrity of Metallic Interconnects in Microelectronics. Ph. D. Thesis for University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, Dec. 2003.

Emery, Robert Thomas, Isotropic Conductive Adhesives for Use in the Microelectronics Industry . Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 1996.

Faizan, Mohammad, Experimental Study and Modeling of Metal Dissolution and Intermetallic Compound Growth During Soldering. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Akron, Akron, OH, Dec. 2007.

Fang, Tong, Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Studies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Fei, Huiyang, Multiscale Modeling of Mechanical Shock Behavior of Environmentally-Benign Lead-Free Solders in Electronic Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, August 2011.

Fiedler, Brent Alan, Fatigue Failure Kinetics and Structural Changes in Lead-Free Interconnects due to Mechanical and Thermal Cycling. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 2010.

Fojas, Paul B., The Influence of Cold Work on the Wettability of Pb-Free Solders on Copper. Master's Thesis for San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, Dec. 2002.

Forest, Louis, Soudures Sans-Plomb Pour la Microelectronique. Master's Thesis for Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Canada, Apr. 2008.

Fountoukidis, Evangelos, Thermo-Mechanical Response of Monolithic and NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Fiber Reinforced Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Solder. Masters Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Sept. 2005.

Fukuda, Yuki, Experimental Investigations of Whisker Formation on Tin Platings . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Gagliano, Robert Andrew, Characterization of the Growth Behavior of Cu-Sn Intermetallics in Liquid Tin/Solid Copper Reaction Couples. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Dec. 2002.

Gan, Hua, Polarity Effect of Electromigration on Intermetallic Compound (IMC) Formation in Pb-free Solder V-groove Samples. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2004.

Gao, Fan, Fundamental Investigation and Development of Lead-Free Nanosolders for Nanowire Assembly and Nano-Joining. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2012.

Gao, Fan, Lead-Free Nano-solders on Metallic Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Reflow Properties. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, April 21, 2009.

Gao, Mao, The Intermetallic Formation and Growth Kinetics at the Interface of Near Eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys and Au/Ni Metallization. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

George, Elviz, Thermal Cycling Reliability of Lead-Free Solders (SAC305 and Sn3.5Ag) for High Temperature Applications. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Ghorbani, Hamid Reza, Analytical Modeling of Thermal Stresses in Solder Joints - Application to Reliability Prediction. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2006.

Ghosh, Santaneel, A Non-contact Measurement Technique at the Micro Scale. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2005.

Ghosh, Santanu, Finite Element Analysis of Moisture and Thermal Induced Stress in Flip Chip Packages. Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, May 2006.

Godbole, Gaurav Vinod, Pad Cratering: Characterizing Crack Propagation and the Effects of Humidity and Reflow on Reliability. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2009.

Goland, Allen Nathan, Thermoelectric Properties of Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Aug. 1956.

Goldstein, Julia L. Freer, Microstructural Development and Mechanical Behavior of Eutectic Bismuth-Tin and Eutectic Indium-Tin in Response to High Temperature Deformation (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL 34909). Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Berkeley, CA, Nov. 1993.

Gopakumar, Sunil, An Experimental Approach to Develop Process Windows for Lead-Free Flip Chip Assembly from a Yield and Reliability Perspective. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2003.

Gordon, Matthew, A Nacreous Self-Assembled Nanolaminate for Corrosion Resistance on 2024-Al Alloy. Masters Thesis for Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, May 24, 2001.

Gosavi, Mridula, Reliability Testing and Modeling of Linear Image Sensor Devices. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Greene, Christopher M., Lead-Free Solder Paste Printing for EMS Providers. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2001.

Greenlaw, Tamara, Cross-Functional Environmental Initiatives: Addressing Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) Technical Challenges at Sun Microsystems. Master's Thesis for Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, June 2005.

Gregory, Patrice Belnora, Comparison of Interconnect Failures of Electronic Components Mounted on FR-4 Boards with Sn37Pb and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solders Under Rapid Loading Conditions. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Groen, Luiken Jan, Kinetiek van de Allotrope Omzetting in Tin. Echeikundig Ingenieur Thesis, Delft, Netherlands, Oct. 31, 1956.

Guinane, James, Rework Methods for Stacked PCB SMT Assemblies. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2008.

Guo, Fu, Studies on Lead-Free Solders Reinforced with Mechanically-Incorporated Cu, Ag, and Ni Particles. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2002.

Guo, Weiqing, Testing Methodology for Reflow Soldering Process Compatibility Evaluation of Surface Mount Technology. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, May 2001.

Hamid, Mohd Foad Abdul, Thermomigration: An Experimental Damage Mechanics Study on Nanoelectronic Lead-Free Solder Alloys. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, May 2008.

Han, Chunfen, Electrodeposition of Pb-free, Sn-based Alloy Solder Films. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, Fall 2009.

Han, Jung Kyu, Effect of Thermo-Electromigration on Copper Dissolution and Intermetallic Compound Formation in Flip-Chip Pb-free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Hanchinamani, V., Novel Additives for Conductive Epoxy Adhesive. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2001.

Haswell, Peter Lewis, Durability Assessment and Microstructural Observations of Selected Solder Alloys. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2001.

Hensler, Donald Henry, Oscillatory Microwave Magnetoconductivity in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, Jan. 1963.

Hinkley Jr., Everett David, Oscillatory Magnetoresistance in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1963.

Hodges, S. LeAnn, Evaluation of Lead Free Solder and No-Clean Flux for Attachment of High Power Components to Direct Bond Copper. Master's Thesis for University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1996.

Hossain, Mohammad Masum, Development of Constitutive Equation Parameters and Reliability Evaluations of SnAgCu Interconnects. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Texas, Arlington, TX, May 2006.

How, Yew Seng, Modeling of Impression Testing to Obtain Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Solders Microelectronic Interconnects. Masters Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Dec. 2005.

Huang, Xingjia, Investigation and Analysis on the Solder Ball Shear Strength of Plastic Ball Grid Array, Chip Scale, and Flip Chip Packages with Eutectic Pb-Sn and Pb-free Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Jan. 2003.

Huang, Zhe, Fracture of Lead-Free Solder Joints for Electronic Applications: Effects of Material, Processing and Loading Conditions. Ph. D. Thesis for Washington State University, Washington, May 2013.

Hwang, Tae-Kyung, Effects of microstructure on material behaviors and fatigue properties of lead-free solder materials. Ph. D. Thesis for Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea, Nov. 28, 2006.

Ibitayo, Oladimeji Olalekan, Evaluation of Various Die-Attachment Materials and Processes for Power Electronics Packaging. Master's Thesis for Howard University, Washington, D.C., Dec. 2008.

Islam, Mohd Nokibul, Investigations on Damage Mechanics and Life Prediction of Fine-Pitch Electronics in Harsh Environments. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Aug. 8, 2005.

Iyer, Ganesh R., Role of Intermetallics for Both Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Solder Structures and Its Solder Pad Combination. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Iyer, Satyanarayan Shivkumar, Assembly, Reliability, and Rework of Stacked CSP Components. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2008.

Jadhav, Susheel Ganeshrao, Stress Relaxation in Lead-Free Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2001.

Jafreen, Rifat, A Cost Model for Assessing the Transition to Lead-Free Electronics . Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

Jain, Sameer, Research and Application of a Thermal Management Device (CoolCap(TM)) for Electronic Assemblies. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Jain, Sujit, Green Synthesis and Applications of Polyaniline Derivatives. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2009.

Jakkali, Vaidehi, Finite Element Modeling of the Effect of Reflow Porosity on the Mechanical Behavior of Pb-free Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, Dec. 2011.

Jaradat, Younis, Reliability of SnAgCu and Mixed Solders under Variable Loading Conditions. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2012.

Jiang, Hongjin, Synthesis of Tin, Silver and Their Alloy Nanoparticles for Lead-Free Interconnect Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Apr. 2008.

Jiang, Tong, Modeling of Failure Mechanism and Life Prediction of Lead-Free BGA Solder Joint under Repetitive Mechanical Drop Loading. Ph. D. Thesis for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Sept. 2012.

Johnson, Michael R., Evaluating Remanufacturing and Demanufacturing for Extended Producer Responsibility & Sustainable Product Management. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Jan. 2002.

Joshi, Rahul V., Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Ceramic Column Grid Array Packages. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Juarez, Joseph Moses, Accelerated Life Testing of Electronic Circuit Boards with Applications in Lead-Free Design. Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2012.

Kabade, Rajendra R., Metallurgical Investigation of Ag-Cu-Sn Lead-Free Solder with the Addition of Au. Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, Aug. 2003.

Kagwade, Sanjay Vasudeo, Surface Analytical and Electrochemical Studies of Aircraft Alloy Pretreatments and their Influence on Corrosion. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, Dec. 1997.

Kaila, Rishi, Investigation of Mixed Solder Assemblies & Novel Lead-Free Solder Alloys. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2011.

Kalkundri, Kaustubh Jayant, Investigation of Electromigration Behavior in Lead-Free Flip Chip Solder Bumps. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

Kao, Hui-Ju, Effect of Cu additives on Sn whisker formation and interfacial reaction of Sn(Cu) finishes. Master's Thesis for National Central University, Jhong-Li, Taiwan, May 23, 2005.

Katsis, Dimosthenis C., Thermal Characterization of Die-Attach Degradation in the Power MOSFET . Ph. D. Thesis for Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, Jan. 16, 2003.

Kaushik, Muthur Srinath Purushotham, A Statistically Based Evaluation of Creep and Shear Behaviour of Monolithic and Composite Lead Free Solders for Microelectronic Applications . Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, Dec. 2004,

Keimasi, Mohammadreza, Flex Cracking and Temperature-Humidity-Bias Effects on Reliability of Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2007.

Kim, Dong Hyun, Reliability Study of SnPb and SnAg Solder Joints in PBGA Packages . Ph. D. Thesis for The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, Dec. 2007.

Kim, Dongwook, Fluxless Flip Chip Bonding Processes and Aerial Fluxless Bonding Technology. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Irvine, CA, 2004.

Kim, Harqkyun, Wetting Kinetics and Interfacial Reaction of Lead(Pb)-based and lead(Pb)-free Solder Alloys on Cu and Ni Metallizations in Electronic Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 1996.

Kim, Hye-Rim, Growth and Low Frequency Noise Properties of Grey Tin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, May 1991.

Kim, Jongsung, Fluxless Bonding Technology Using Electroplated Multilayer Solder Structures. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Irvine, CA, 2007.

Kim, Patrick Gu-Ho, Wetting Behaviors and Interfacial Reactions of Pb-containing and Pb-free Solder Alloys on Au, Pd, Ni Foils, Leadframes, and Under Bump Thin Film Metallizations in Electronic Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 1998.

Kindesjo, Ulrika, Phasing out lead in solders: An assessment of possible impacts of material substitution in electronic solders on the recycling of printed circuit boards. Master's Thesis for University of Lund, Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2002.

Kinney, Christopher Charles, The Effect of an Imposed Current on the Creep of SnAgCu Interconnects . Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Berkeley, CA, Fall 2009.

Kinyanjui, Robert Kamau, Thermal Processes and Solidification Kinetics of Evolution of the Microstructure of Sn-xAg-yCu (0 <=x<=4.0; 0<=y<=1.4) Solder Alloys. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Kirkpatrick, Timothy, The Kinetics of Tin Solidification in Lead-Free Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Kumar, Santosh, Microvoid Formation and Kirkendall Effect in Lead-Free Solder Joints , Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Aug. 2010.

Ladani, Leila Jannesari, Damage Initiation and Evolution in Voided and Unvoided Lead Free Solder Joints Under Cyclic Thermo-mechanical Loading. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2006.

Lam, Carl, Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Davis, CA, 2011.

Lavine, Charles Frederic, Two-band Galvanomagnetic Effects in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1968.

Lee, Jong-Gi, Investigation of Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) Behavior in Tin-Silver Based Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2005.

Lee, Kyuoh, Development of Thermo-Mechanically Reliable Lead-Free Solder Alloys . Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Berkeley, CA, Fall 2007.

Lee, Taekyeong, Electromigration and Solid State Aging of Flip Chip Solder Joints and Analysis of Sn Whisker on Lead-frame. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2001.

Leung, Wai-Bor, Electronic Properties of Gray Tin in the Presence of an External Magnetic Field. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1974.

Levo, Timothy James, Drop Test Energy Relationship to Reliability. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2009.

Li, Haiying, Study of Thermally Reworkable Epoxy Materials and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement Using Carbon Fiber for Electronics Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Nov. 2003.

Li, Jing, Evaluation and Improvement of the Robustness of a PCB Pad in a Lead-Free Environment. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Li, Li, Basic and Applied Studies of Electrically Conductive Adhesives. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 1995.

Li, Shidong, A Multi-Scale Damage Mechanics Framework for Nanoelectronics Interconnects and Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 2009.

Li, Yi, High Performance Electrically Conductive Adhesives (ECAs) for Leadfree Interconnects. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 2007.

Li, Yuquan, Flip Chip and Heat Spreader Attachment Development. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, May 9, 2009.

Li, Zhaozhi, A Novel Three Dimensional Wafer Level Chip Scale Packaging Technology- Manufacturing Process Development and Reliability Characterizations. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Aug. 9, 2010.

Lin, Dechao, Development of Lead-Free Solders Reinforced by Nanoparticles. Ph. D. Thesis for Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, May 20, 2006.

Lin, Xuan, An Environmentally Compliant Cerium-Based Conversion Coating for Aluminum Protection. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Missouri - Rolla, Rola, MO, 1998.

Lindquist, Rolf Eugene, The Infrared Optical Properties of Single-crystal Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1963.

Linteau, Mark W., Impression Creep in Near Eutectic Tin-Lead and Tin-Silver Solders . Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, May 1997.

Liu, Pilin, Roles of Interfacial Reaction on Mechanical Properties of Solder Interfaces. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 2004.

Liu, Yueli, Lead-Free Assembly and Reliability of Chip Scale Packages and 01005 Components. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, May 11, 2006.

Lohokare, Saurabh, A Novel Conductive-Polymer-Based Integration Process for High-Performance Flip-Chip Packages. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Delaware, Newark, DE, Summer 2004.

Loomans, Michael Eugene, Phase Equilibria in Potential Pb-Free Solder Alloy Systems. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Dec. 1999.

Lu, Daoqiang, Fundamental Understanding of Electrically Conductive Adhesives (ECA's) . Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, July 2000.

Lu, Yuan, Effect of Ag and Cu on Sn-x%Ag-y%Cu Interconnects. Ph. D. Thesis for Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 2006.

Ma, Hongtao, Characterization of Lead-Free Solders for Electronic Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2007.

Majeed, Sulman, Rework & Reliability of Area Array Component. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2009.

Marquez de Tino, Ursula, Reduction of Nitrogen Consumption of Lead-Free Reflow Processes and Prediction Models for Behaviors of Lead-Free Assemblies. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2009.

Matin, Md. Abdul, Microstructure evolution and thermomechanical fatigue of solder materials. Ph. D. Thesis for Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands, Nov. 16, 2005.

Mavoori, Hareesh, Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Lifetime Prediction of Solders for Electronic Applications: Tin-Silver and Tin-Zinc Eutectics. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 1996.

McCabe, Rodney James, Creep of InSb and SbSn Strengthened Tin-based Alloys: Effect of Precipitate Size, Shape, and Spacing. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Dec. 2000.

McDougall, Jeffrey Lee, An Analysis of Global and Localized Creep Strains and Creep Properties of Non-Composite and Composite Lead-Free Solders at Room and Elevated Temperatures. Master's Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 1998.

Mei, Yuhai, Stress Evolution in a Conductive Adhesive during Curing and Cooling . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2000.

Miller, Chad M., Development of a new Pb-free solder: Sn-Ag-Cu. MS Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, Feb. 10, 1995, IS-T-1728.

Mirza, Fahad, Investigation of the Impact Response of Lead-Free Electronic Assemblies and Comparison of Drop with Cyclic 4-point Bend Test. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Moon, Sungwook, Magnetically Aligned Z-Axis Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive and Its Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Aug. 2010.

Morose, Gregory J., Electronics Assembly, Rework, and Reliability Evaluation Using Lead-Free Soldering Materials, Halogen-Free Laminate Materials, and Surface Finishes with Nanomaterials. Sc. D. Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2008.

Morris, Eric Leon, Use of Cerium-Based Inhibitors in Electrochemically Deposited Coatings for the Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Alloys. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Missouri - Rolla, Rolla, MO, 2000.

Mudge Jr., Wilbur L., Kinetics of the alpha to/from beta Transformation of Pure Tin. Master's Thesis for University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, June 1949.

Mukherjee, Shantanu, Lead-Free Wave Soldering of 'Thick' PCB Using Sn 3.8%Ag 0.07%Cu and No-Clean VOC-Free Flux. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Munukutla, Aravind, Tensile Properties of Lead Free Solders. Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, Dec. 2004.

Muza, Anthony R., Lead-Free Solutions for High and Low Temperature Solder Interconnects . Master's Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Dec. 2009.

Nadimpalli, Siva Prasad Varma, Characterization and Prediction of Fracture within Solder Joints and Circuit Boards . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2011.

Nagarkar, Kaustubh Ravindra, A Systems Approach to Ultra-fine Pitch Flip Chip Interconnect Packaging . Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Nair, Vineethkumar R., Estimation of Relative Rate of Copper Dissolution in Wave Soldering and Through-Hole Rework Process by Designing an Experiment for Soldering Parameters and PCB Features. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2012.

Nambiar, Sudeep, Process Development of 01005 Assembly. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Neuder, Heather Aurelia, In-Situ Phosphatizing Coatings for Aerospace, OEM and Coil Coating Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, Dec. 2003.

Nguyen, Tung Thanh, Characterization of the Elasto-plastic Behavior of Actual Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints Using DIC. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

Nie, Lei, Temperature Cycling Reliability of Reballed and Reworked Ball Grid Array Packages in SnPb and SAC Assembly. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Obaidat, Mazin, Reliability of Lead-Free Solders under Realistic Service Conditions . Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2013.

Oberc, Timothy James, Reliability of Lead-Free High Temperature Surface Mount Component Attaches. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

Padilla, Eric, Characterization of Local Deformation in Pb-free Solder Joints Using Three Dimensional (3D) X-ray Microtomography. Master's Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2012.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, Evaluation of Environmental Tests for Tin Whisker Assessment. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009. Panchagade, Dhananjay R., Damage Prediction of Lead Free Ball Grid Array Packages Under Shock and Drop Environment. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, May 10, 2007.

Paquette, Beth Miller, Harmonic Vibration Testing of Electronic Components Attached to Printed Wiring Boards with SAC305 and Eutectic SnPb Solder . Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Park, Tae-Sang, A Study on Mechanical Fatigue Behaviors of Ball Grid Array Solder Joints for Electronic Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea, May 30, 2004.

Pedigo, Aaron E., The Influence of the Effective Physical Properties of Tin Electrodeposited Films on the Growth of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2011.

Peercy, Paul S., Helicon Propagation in Indium Antimonide and Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1966.

Pei, Min, Effects of Lanthanum Doping on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of a SnAg Alloy. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, May 2007.

Pierce, David Michael, Continuum Damage Mechanics Based Failure Prediction Methodology for 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu Solder Alloy Interconnects in Electronic Packaging. Ph. D. Thesis for Stanford University, Stanford, CA, June 2007.

Pinol, Lesly Agnes, Fundamental Studies of Tin Whiskering in Microelectronics Finishes . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Plaza, Gustavo Alberto, Impact of Board Pad Finish on the SnPb and Lead-free Solder Interconnect Reliability for Leadless Chip Resistors under Random Vibration Loading. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

Puthenparambil, Abhilash, Effect of Bonding Pressure on Reliability of Anisotropic Conductive Adhesives Joints in a Silicon-to-Flex-Substrate Interconnection. Master's Thesis for Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Qasaimeh, Awni, Study of the Damage Evolution Function of SnAgCu in Cycling. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2012.

Qi, Yan, Accelerated Thermal Fatigue of SnPb and Pb-Free Solder Joints: Effect of Temperature Range and Rate of Change. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2005.

Quintero, Pedro O., Development of a Shifting Melting Point Ag-In Paste Via Transient Liquid Phase Sintering for High Temperature Environments. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

Raghavan, Venkatesh Arasanipalai, Pad Cratering: Development of a Test Protocol and Quantification of the Effects of 'Latent Damage' at the Joint Level and Assembly Level, Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

Rajagopal, Subramanian, Transition of Low-Volume Complex Electronic System Industries to Lead-Free Electronics. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, 2003.

Rajathurai, Karunaharan, Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Nanorods and Tin-Indium Nanoparticles as Nanosolder Materials. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, 2011.

Ramkumar, S. Manian, Process Analysis and Performance Characterization of a Novel Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive for Lead-Free Surface Mount Electronics Assembly. Ph. D. Thesis for Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Raut, Rahul, Thermal Management of Heat Sensitive Components in Pb-Free Assembly and Rework Process. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Ready IV, William Judson, Reliability Investigation of Printed Wiring Boards Processed with Water Soluble Flux Constituents. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, July 2000.

Reinbold, Lucine Kabakian, Kinetics of Interfacial Reaction and Stress Evolution in Bimetallic Copper-Tin Thin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2007.

Ren, Fei, Polarity Effect of Electromigration on Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2006.

Reuse, Rolando, Thermomechanical Behavior of Monolithic Sn-Ag-Cu Solder and Copper Fiber Reinforced Solders. Masters Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Sept. 2005.

Reynolds, Heidi Linch, Creep of Two-Phase Microstructures for Microelectronic Applications (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report LBNL42733). Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Berkeley, CA, Dec. 1998.

Rhee, Hongjoo, Roles of Service Parameters on the Mechanical Behavior of Lead-Free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2005.

Robiaee, Ala Al, Evaluation of the Printability of Lead Versus Lead Free Solder Pastes . Master's Thesis for Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2005.

Rodekohr, Chad L., Material Factors Influencing Metallic Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 19, 2008.

Rogers, Keith Leslie, An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Filament Formation in Glass/Epoxy Composites. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Roman, Bernard John, Stress-Induced Bandgap and Related Phenomena in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1969.

Rowley, Jonathan Gabriel, The Role of Soldering Process Variables on Properties of Lead-Free Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, Aug. 2003.

Sabbagh, N. A. J., Tin Whisker Growth in the Communication Industry. Master's Thesis for Sir George Williams University, Montreal, Canada, Apr. 1973.

Sadiq, Muhammad, Design and Fabrication of Lanthanum-Doped SN-AG-Cu Lead-Free Solder for the Next Generation of Microelectronics Applications in Severe Environment , Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, Aug. 2012.

Sajjala, Sandeep Reddy, Optimizing Stencil and Pad Design for 0201 Components in a Lead-Free Assembly. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Sanapala, Ravikumar, Characterization of FR-4 Printed Circuit Board Laminates Before and After Exposure to Lead-Free Soldering Conditions. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, Aug. 2008.

Sane, Shantanu Madhavrao, Disturbed State Concept Based Constitutive Modeling for Reliability Analysis of Lead Free Solders in Electronic Packaging and for Prediction of Glacial Motion. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2007.

Sani-Bakhtiari, Paymon, Surface Mount DC/DC Converter Attachment to Printed Circuit Board . Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2002.

Sarobol, Pylin, Effects of Local Film Properties on the Nucleation and Growth of Tin Whiskers and Hillocks. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2013.

Sattiraju, Seshagirirao V., Wetting Studies of Pb-Free Solders on Pb-Free PWB Finishes. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Aug. 5, 2002.

Seddon, Michael John, Characterization and Comparison of Creep Properties for Tin-Indium-Silver Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 1996.

Sellers, Michael S., Atomistic Modeling of the Microstructure and Transport Properties of Lead-Free Solder Alloys. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, August 23, 2010.

Selvaraj, Mukesh K., An Experimental Study of Electromigration in Flip Chip Packages. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Sengupta, Shirsho, Effects of Solder-Dipping as a Termination Re-finishing Technique . Masters Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. June 2006.

Sha, Chu-Hsuan, Silver Flip Chip Interconnect Technology and Solid State Bonding. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Irvine, CA, 2011.

Shah, Vatsal, Pb-Free Process Development and Microstructural Analysis of Capacitor Filter Assemblies Using Solder Preforms. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2005.

Shirley, Dwayne R., Transient and Steady-State Creep in a Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy: Experiments and Modeling. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2009.

Sidhu, Rajen Singh, Thermomechanical Behavior of Sn-Rich (Pb-Free) Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, Aug. 2007.

Singh, Harmandeep, Study of Thermal Fatigue of Wafer Level Packages under Temperature Cycling. Master's Thesis for Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, Dec. 2008.

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Song, Fubin, Experimental Investigation on Testing Conditions of Solder Ball Shear and Pull Tests and the Correlation with Board Level Mechanical Drop Test . Ph. D. Thesis for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Aug. 2007.

Song, Ho Geon, Microstructural Evolution of Eutectic Au-Sn Solder Joints (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report LBNL50573). Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Berkeley, CA, May 2002.

Song, Yubao, Study of Pulse Plating and Reaction Mechanism of Trivalent Chromium Deposition Process. Ph. D. Thesis for Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, Apr. 20, 2000.

Spitzner, Matthew James, Response of tin whiskers to dynamic input: Mathematical modeling and experimental property measurement. Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2009.

Srinivas, Vikram, Modeling Rate Dependent Durability of Low-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages under Torsion Loads. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Stark, Brian H., Thin Film Technologies for Hermetic and Vacuum Packaging of MEMS. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2004.

Stinson-Bagby, Kelly, Microstructural Evolution in Thermally Cycled Large-Area Lead and Lead-Free Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, June 7, 2002.

Stromswold, Eric Ivan, Characterization of eutectic tin-silver solder joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 1993.

Su, Bin, Electrical, Thermomechanical and Reliability Modeling of Electrically Conductive Adhesives. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, May 2006.

Su, Peng, A Study on the Reliability of Flip Chip Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, Jan. 2001.

Subbaiyan, Sudharsan, A Physical Model Examination of Micro-brazing Reaction with Gallium and Copper. Master's Thesis for Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Apr. 2005.

Subbarayan, Guhan, A Systematic Approach for Selection of Best Pb-Free Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Surface Finish. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Suh, Jongook, Orientation distribution, morphology, and size distribution of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound in reactions between molten solder and Cu in flip chip solder joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2006.

Tabatabaei, Salomeh, Synthesis and Characterization of Two Component Alloy Nanoparticles. Ph. D. Thesis for Rice University, Houston, TX, 2010.

Tan, Wei, Development of Convective Reflow-Projection Moire Warpage Measurement System and Prediction of Solder Bump Reliability on Board Assemblies Affected by Warpage. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Apr. 2008.

Tang, Zhenming, Interfacial Reliability of Pb-Free Flip-Chip BGA Package. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2008.

Telang, Adwait U., Characterization of Deformation in Sn-Ag Lead-Free Solders During Thermomechanical Fatigue Using Orientation Imaging Microscopy. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2004.

Telang, Adwait U., Characterization of Microstructural Evolution of Crept, Aged and Thermomechanically Fatigued Eutectic Sn-Ag Solder Joints using Orientation Imaging Microscopy. Master's Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2002.

Theeven, J. G. A., Creep and Failure of Lead-Free Solder Alloys. Master's Thesis for Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, Mar. 2002.

Tonapi, Sandeep Shrikant, Assembly and Reliability of Lead-Free Flip Chips. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2001.

Tong, Michael Shou-Ming, The Use of Nickel/Aluminum Explosively Reactive Nanolayers as Localized Heat Sources in Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2009.

Tumne, Pushkraj Satish, Investigation of Bulk Solder and Intermetallic Failures in Pb-free BGA by Joint Level Testing. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2009.

Tunga, Krishna Rajaram, Study of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy Reliability Through Material Microstructure Evolution and Laser Moire Interferometry. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Aug. 2008.

Varghese, Joseph, Effect of Dynamic Flexural Loading on the Durability and Failure Site of Solder Inteconnects of Printed Wiring Assemblies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2007.

Varia, Ronak, Investigations of Polymer-Cored Solder Balls and Fan-Out Technologies in Wafer Level Packaging. Master's Thesis for Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, Aug. 2010.

Venkatadri, Vikram, Quantitative Assessment of Long Term Aging Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Lead Free Solder Joints. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2009.

Vijayanath, Vignesh, Assembly Process Development for Fine Pitch (0.4 mm) Package-On-Package Devices in a Lead-Free Assembly Environment. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2010.

Vishwanathan, Krishnan, Process Development and Microstructural Analysis of Capacitor Filter Assemblies Using Lead Free Solder Preforms. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2007.

Vollweiler, Fred O, P., Intermetallic Growth at the Interface between Copper and Bismuth-Tin Solder. Masters Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Sept. 1993.

Wagner, Robert John, Free Carrier Reflectivity of Gray Tin Single Crystals. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Aug. 1967.

Walleser, Jason Kenneth, Microstructure control of the Sn-Ag-Cu-X solder alloy system through nucleation catalysis of Sn. Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2008.

Wang, Daijiao, Experimental Study of Void Formation in Solder Joints of Flip-Chip Assemblies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, May 2005.

Wang, Pin J., Fluxless Bonding of Thermal Expansion Mismatch Materials. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Irvine, CA, 2009.

Wang, Qing, Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Investigation of Sn-Ag-Cu Lead Free Solder for Electronic Package Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 16, 2005.

Wang, Weiqiang, Solder Joint Reliability of Sn and SnBi Finished and Refinished Sn (SAC/SnPb) SMT Packages Under Temperature Cycling Test. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Wang, Yibo, A Numerical Model of Anisotropic Mass Transport Through Grain Boundary Networks. Master's Thesis for Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, Sept. 2011.

Wei, Yong, Electronically Conductive Adhesives: Conduction Mechanisms, Mechanical Behavior and Durability. Ph. D. Thesis for Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, Apr. 1995.

Welch III, Warren Cornelius, Vacuum and Hermetic Packaging of MEMS Using Solder. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2008.

Wentlent, Luke, On the Microstructure of Pb-Free Solder Joints: Implications for Accelerated Thermal Cycling and Finite Element Modeling. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2012.

Wolfson, Robert George, Transformation Studies of Gray - Tin Single Crystals. Master's Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1960.

Wong, Anthony Yin-Bong, Implementation and Qualification of a Prototype Tester for Reflow Soldering Process Compatibility Evaluation of Surface Mount Technology Components. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, Dec. 2002.

Wright, William L., Processing of NiTi Reinforced Adaptive Solder for Electronic Packaging . Masters Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Mar. 2004.

Wu, Chun-I, Fabrication and Site Specific Growth of Nanowires. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2006.

Wu, Ji, Electrical Characterization and Reliability Assessment of Lead-Free Solder Coated Electrical Contacts. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2003.

Xiao, Qiang, Constitutive Model Development for Lead Free Solder Alloys at Multiple Specimen Scales. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, Dec. 2004.

Xie, Huxiao, Properties of Cerium Containing Lead Free Solder, Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Arizona, Oct. 2012,

Xing, Yan, Study of Thermal and Chemical Factors Which Influence Solidification of Tin in Near Eutectic Sn-3.0Ag-XCu Lead Free Solder. Master's Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2006.

Xu, Shuangyan, Evaluating Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Electrically Conductive Adhesives for Electronic Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, Apr. 2001.

Yang, Fan-Yi Ou, Electromigration and Thermomigration in Pb-free SnAgCu and Eutectic SnPb Flip Chip Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2007.

Yang, Hong, Mechanical and Thermomechanical Stability Issues of 96.5SN-3.5AG Solder Joints in Microelectronic Packages. Ph. D. Thesis for North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 1998

Yang, Linlin, Lead-Free Solder Reliability in Combined Environments. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2011.

Yang, Quan, Modeling and Characterization for Small-Scale Packaging Applications . Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 2004.

Yang, Se-Young, Reliability Evaluation for Flip-Chip Electronic packaging Using Optical Measurement Techniques. Ph. D. Thesis for Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea, Nov. 29, 2004.

Yang, Wenge, Process-Structure-Property Relationship for Eutectic Sn-Ag Solder Joints . Ph. D. Thesis for Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, Aug. 1995.

Yao, Yao, Modeling the Mechanical Properties of Intermetallic/Solder Interfaces . Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Dec. 2008.

Yazzie, Kyle, Mechanical Shock Behavior of Environmentally-Benign Pb-free Solders . Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2012.

Ye, Hua, Mechanical Behavior of Microelectronics and Power Electronics Solder Joints Under High Current Density: Analytical Modeling and Experimental Investigation. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, June 1, 2004.

Yoon, Ji-Young, A Research for the Moisture-Induced Properties of ACF Package Materials . Master's Thesis for Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea, Dec. 27, 2006.

Young, Poh-shien, Measurements of Electrical Conductivity of Filaments of Gray Tin and Gray Tin Alloys. Master's Thesis for Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Oklahoma State University), Stillwater, OK, May 1957.

Yu, Hao, Combined Thermal, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Modelling for the Reliability of High-Density Lead-Free Solder Interconnections. Doctor of Science in Technology Thesis for Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, 2006.

Zahedi, Fahad, Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Under Cyclic Bending. Master's Thesis for University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, May 2006.

Zbrzezny, Adam R., Characterization and Modeling of Microstructural Evolution of Near-Eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2004.

Zhan, Sheng, Surface Insulation Resistance Degradation and Electrochemical Migration on Printed Circuit Boards. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2007.

Zhan, Yumei, Micro Zero-Insertion-Force (ZIF) Connector for Multi-Substrate Packages . Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, Dec. 2003.

Zhang, Hongqing, Thermal and Electromigration Induced Strain and Microstructure Evolution in Metal Conductor Lines. Ph. D. Thesis for Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, July 2008.

Zhang, Qian, Isothermal Mechanical and Thermomechanical Durability Characterization of Selected Pb-Free Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2004.

Zhang, Rongwei, Novel Conductive Adhesives for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Way Towards Economical, Highly Conductive, Low Temperature and Flexible Interconnects. Ph. D, Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, May 2011.

Zhang, Xuefeng, Chip Package Interaction (CPI) and Its Impact on the Reliability of Flip-Chip Packages. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, Dec. 2009.

Zhang, Yifei, The Effects of Aging on the Mechanical Behavior of Lead Free and Mixed Formulation Solder Alloys. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Aug. 9, 2010.

Zhang, Zheming, Ball Grid Array Solder Joint Reliability under Impact Test. Ph. D. Thesis for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Aug. 2010.

Zhang, Zhongqin, Nucleation and Growth Kinetics of Tin and Tin-Silver Alloy During Initial Stages of Electrodeposition. Ph. D. Thesis for University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, Dec. 2004.

Zhao, Ping, Creep Corrosion over Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuit Packages with Noble Metal Pre-plated Leadframes. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2005.

Zheng, Yunqi, Effect of Surface Finishes and Intermetallics on the Reliability of SnAgCu Interconnects. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Zhou, Bite, Characterization of Tin Crystal Orientation Evolution During Thermal Cycling in Lead-Free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, Michigan, 2012.

Zhou, Jianguo, Processing of Generic Circuits by Conductive Adhesives: Geometrical and Rheological Considerations. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Akron, Akron, OH, May 2007.

Zhou, Xiaoying, Life Cycle Thinking and Assessment Tools on Environmentally-Benign Electronics: Convergent Optimization of Materials Use, End-of-Life Strategy and Environmental Policies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Davis, CA, 2007.

Zhou, Yuxun, Harmonic and Random Vibration Durability Investigation for Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Interconnects. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

Zribi, Anis, Kinetics of Intermetallic Growth at the Interfaces of Soldered Metallizations. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 2002.

CDROM's on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 10/21/2006)

5 Steps to Lead-Free Soldering, free from Vitronics Soltec

A Guide To Lead-Free Soldering for Assemblers & Sub-Contractors, Version 2.6, $68 from Roger Bilham Consultancy

AIM Lead-Free Information, Version 4.1, from AIM.

Assembly Technology Expo, Sept. 26-28, 2006, from Nihon Superior.

e3 survival toolkit, 499 British pounds + value-added tax from eco3 (do not have)

EMC & Compliance Yearbook Plus Information Bank 2005.

Guide to Lead-Free Wave Soldering, 99 British pounds + value-added tax from Soldertec Global (do not have)

Handsoldering and De-soldering with Lead-Free Solder, 99 British pounds + value-added tax from Soldertec Global (do not have)

Lead-Free Assembly and Soldering Cook Book3, $195 from Electronics.CA Publications (do not have)

Lead-Free: Fantasy or Fact?, $75.00 from MEPTEC (do not have)

Lead-Free Hand Soldering & DeSoldering Interactive CD-ROM, $195.00 from electronics.ca publications (do not have)

Lead-Free Solder CD-ROM, $570 for NCMS members, $670 for non-members from National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (do not have)

Lead-Free Solder Implementation Summit, $75.00 from MEPTEC (do not have)

Lead-Free Soldering Interactive Cook Book 3, $195.00 from electronics.ca publications

Lead-Free Watch: Countdown to July 1, 2006.

MacDermid's Patented Immersion Silver Solderability Preservative

Reflow Soldering with Lead-Free Solder Paste, 99 British pounds + value-added tax from Soldertec Global (do not have)

RoHS Ready Lead-Free Solutions, from Kester.

Round Robin Testing and Analysis of Lead Free Solder Pastes with Alloys of Tin, Silver and Copper, $99.00 for members and $199.00 for non-members from IPC

SMART Group Lead-Free Seminar 1999 & 2000 Slides, $50.00 for members and $60.00 for non-members from SMTA

SMTA TechScan Compendium: The State-of-the-Art in Pb-free Soldering Technology, $85.00 for members and $105.00 for non-members from SMTA

SN100C Lead-Free Alloy, Version 1.3, from AIM.

Summit on Lead-Free Solder Implementation, $75.00 from MEPTEC (do not have)


Papers, Reports, and Magazine Articles on Lead-Free, RoHS, and WEEE (revised 6/17/2014)

First author's last name beginning with: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

????

"(editorial)," SMTA Journal, vol. 19 no. 1, pp. 10, Jan.-Mar. 2006.

"0201 capacitors creating process problem," Circuitnet, Sept. 25, 2006.

"100% Sn Plating Whisker Growth Study," AMD, Jan 10, 2003.

"12-month shelf life for chemical silver," evertiq, Nov. 11, 2005.

"1st Meeting of RoHS Enforcement Bodies Network."

"2004 - 10/01/2004 - OSHA Proposes Revised Rule on Hexavalent Chromium," Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Oct. 1, 2004.

"2006 (2nd) TMS State of Art Pb-free Technology Workshop Panel Discussion Summary," 2006 Lead-Free Technology Workshop, San Antonio, TX, Mar. 12, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

"2006: The Year of RoHS," Manufacturing.net, June 21, 2006.

"2008 Review of Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE),"

"2009 Industry Forecast," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 22 no. 12, pp. 8,11-17,19-20,22-23, Dec. 2008.

"3M provides information on the new OSHA hexavalent chromium standard," Welding Design and Fabrication, vol. 79 no. 5, pp, 6-7, May 2006.

"7 more RoHS exemptions proposed," evertiq, June 6, 2008.

"A big answer to a WEEE problem," Department of Trade and Industry, July 25, 2006.

"A Brief History of Lead," EDN, vol. 47 no. 9, pp. 57, Apr. 18, 2002.

"A Citizen's Guide to Producer Responsibility," Feb. 2003.

"A Flood of New Environmental Laws," SourceESB, July 13, 2006.

"A legal look at environmental compliance," SourceESB, Mar. 22, 2006.

"A New Standard for Tin-Nickel I. S. O. 2179: International Standard for Electroplated Coatings of Tin-nickel Alloy," Tin and its Uses, no. 94, pp. 7, 1972.

"A new way to grow microwires," Electronics Manufacture and Test , Feb. 4, 2011.

"A practical precaution against introducing zinc whiskers," finishing.com.

"A quiet introduction for the RoHS Directive?," Components in Electronics, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Aug. 2006.

"A Research Program on SAC Lead Free Alloys," IPC Solder Products Value Council.

"A Review of California and Maine's electronics recycling programs," INFORM, Dec. 2006.

"A round-table discussion examining issues around the forthcoming European Restrictions of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and electrical waste (WEEE) directives," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 11, 2004.

"A Study of Lead-Free Wave Soldering,", AIM.

"A WEEE bit late," Electronics Manufacture and Test, pp. xx-xx, Mar. 2006.

"A WEEE Warning," Electronics Manufacture and Test, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 19, 2007.

"A Year of Many Conversions!," Lead-Free Connection, vol. 4 no. 1, pp. 1, Feb. 2007.

"A320's electrical system falters," evertiq, Aug. 11, 2008.

"About RoHS enforcement," Dataweek, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 20, 2006.

"Achieving a Competitive Advantage Through RoHS Compliance," PCB007 , July 28, 2005.

"ACI Lead Free Manufacturing for Navy Systems," Lead Free Soldering Summit, Philadelphia, PA, July 13-14, 2005.

"Act for Resource Recycling of Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Vehicles - Korea RoHS, WEEE & ELV," ERA Technology, 2008.

"Actel goes green on 100% of its FPGA products," SourceESB, Dec. 15, 2004.

"Action to take on WEEE and RoHS," Electronics Weekly, Dec. 10, 2004.

"Adaption to scientific and technical progress under Directive 2002/95/EC," Oko-Institut e.V., 2007.

"Additional Revisions to the RoHS Directive = A Bumpy Ride for IPC Members," IPC Review, vol. 2 no. 2, pp. 8, Mar./Apr. 2009.

"Additional RoHS Exemptions Sought," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 3, pp. 8, Oct. 2005.

"Advanced AP Maine Touts Recycling Computer Monitors," Appliance Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Jan. 2006.

"Advantages and Disadvantages of AOI Methodologies in Lead-Free PCB Assembly," AOI Solutions.

"Advantages of vapour phase reflow for lead-free soldering," Dataweek, Oct. 1, 2008.

"AEM, Inc."

"Africa Discusses E-waste at COP8," SMT Web Exclusive Article.

"After RoHS Deadline - Glut or Shortages?," SourceESB, Nov. 16, 2006.

"Agere discovers lead-free packaging method," Advanced Packaging , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 21, 2004.

"Agere Systems Uncovers Method to Overcome Barriers to Global Lead-Free Chip Implementation," Agere Systems, Sept. 20, 2004.

"Agere's Lead-free (Pb-free) Plating Capabilities Matte tin (Sn) versus matte Sn-over-nickel (Ni) underplate," Agere, Sept. 2004.

"Ageus now offers China RoHS compliance services," EE Times - Asia , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Apr. 4, 2006.

"Ageus Solutions: A Leader in UK WEEE Support," PCB007, Jan. 5, 2007.

"Ageus Solutions Launches New China RoHS Services," PCB007, Mar. 31, 2006.

"Ageus Solutions Provides China RoHS Services to Electronics Industry," PCB007, Oct. 24, 2006.

"AIM Lead-Free Validation Program," AIM.

"Alarming Facts About RoHS Compliance," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 23 no. 9, pp. 10, Sept. 2006.

"All Aboard -- Next Stop is Lead-Free Electronics," Lead-Free Connection, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 1, July 2004.

"Allotropic Transformation of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 161, pp. 3, 1989.

"Allotropy," Advanced Materials & Processes, vol. 167 no. 2, pp. 81, Feb. 2009.

"Alloy Selection Team: Alloy Database," Mar. 16, 2000.

"Alloy Temperature Chart," Kester, July 19, 2002.

"Alloy Verdict: 'No Difference'," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture , vol. 20 no. 10, pp. 10, Oct. 2003.

"Alloys that we've selected."

"Alternatives," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 75 no. 1, pp. B3-B4, Jan. 1997.

"Alternatives to Cadmium Plating: Reflections Five Years Later," Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 69 no. 11, pp. 34-43, Nov. 1982.

"An Assessment of the Use of Lead in Electronics Assembly: Part 1," Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 18-24, 1993.

"An Assessment of the Use of Lead in Electronics Assembly: Part 2," Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 3, pp. 25-31, 1993.

"An Inherent Advantage of Tin-Nickel Coatings: Compressive State Reduces Corrosion," Tin and its Uses, no. 55, pp. 2-3, 1962.

"An Interview with the Editor of a new book, "Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Reliability"," Circuitnet, Jan. 30, 2006.

"An Introduction to Lead-Free Soldering," AIM.

"An Update: Elimination of Lead from Electronics," Boeing Environmental Technotes, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 1-4, Nov. 2002.

"Analyzing lead-free soldering defects in wave soldering using Taguchi methods," Dataweek, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 23, 2005.

"Analyzing Thermal Fatigue," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 1, pp. 52-53, Jan. 2007.

"Announcement of "Guidelines for the Management of Chemical Substances in Products"," Japan Green Procurement Survey Standardization Initiative (JGPSSI), Sept. 27, 2005.

"Another Candidate Wave Solder."

"Another satellite to replace wayward pager relay," CNN Interactive, May 20, 1998.

"Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement Negotiations Urged to Start," Circuitnet, Mar. 6, 2008.

"Apathy over legislation could damage electronics industry," European Electronics Engineer, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 11, 2003.

"Application for an additional exemption from RoHS for Fine Pitch Flexible Applications."

"Application of Fritsch Laboratory Mills for WEEE and RoHS Tests," Aufbereitungs-Technik/Mineral Processing, vol. 47 no. 6, pp. 48, June 2006.

"Applications of Low-Temperature Tin-bismuth and Tin-bismuth-silver Lead-free Alloy Solder Pastes," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 6, pp. 12,14-16,18-20,22-24,26-28,30,32-33, July 2013.

"Applications of Tin-Nickel Alloy Electroplate," Tin and its Uses , no. 78, pp. 5-6, 1968.

"Are Counterfeit Parts Going Compliant?," SourceESB, Jan. 11, 2006.

"Are electronics companies on target for lead-free RoHS deadlines?," Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 3, pp. xx, 2005.

"Are equipment companies mandated to meet lead-free requirements?," Circuitnet, Apr. 24, 2006.

"Are the military and telecommunications industries off the hook on RoHS?," SourceESB, Jan. 26, 2005.

"Are You Ready for RoHS?," EDN, July 21, 2005.

"Are You Ready for RoHS?," ECN Supplement, pp. 1, Nov. 2005.

"Are You Ready for RoHS Compliance?," Review, vol. 45 no. 9, pp. 2-5, Nov. 2004.

"Are you ready to collect & recycle WEEE in Germany from 23 March?," evertiq, Mar. 17, 2006.

"Are your parts the real deal?," Electronics Manufacture and Test , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, June 9, 2008.

"Are Zinc Whiskers Growing in Your Computer Room?"

"Arrow adds green data," Purchasing, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Aug. 4, 2005.

"Arrow Electronics Delivering Critical Environmental Data On More Than 2.3 Million Components," Arrow Electronics, June 29, 2004.

"Arrow Electronics Enables OEMs to Check RoHS Compliancy at No Cost through ArrowNAC.com," PCB007, Apr. 20, 2006.

"Arrow Electronics Offers Critical Environmental Data for Customers," PCB007, July 13, 2005.

"Arrow Helps Get the Lead Out."

"Arrow releases WEEE-guide," evertiq, Aug. 2, 2005.

"Artesyn's Approach to RoHS Compliance," Artesyn, Sept. 14-15, 2005.

"As RoHS Deadline Looms, Universal Compliance in Doubt," Supply & Demand Chain Executive, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, xxxx.

"Asian firms on track to meet RoHS rules," emsnow, July 11, 2006.

"Ask Dr RoHS: problems with lead-free BGA solder balls," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 20, 2006.

"Ask the Expert," Medical Product Manufacturing News, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, 2006.

"ASK the Experts," TUV Rheinland World News, pp. 2, Mar./Apr. 2005.

"ASK the Experts," TUV Rheinland World News, pp. 8, Sept./Oct. 2005.

"Assemblers to Suppliers: Which Lead-free Alloy?," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 14 no. 2, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 2000.

"Assemblies Go PoP," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 12, pp. 34-35, Dec. 2007.

"Assembling High-Lead (Pb) DS2502 Flip-Chips in a Pb-Free Assembly Flow," EE Times - Asia, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, June 8, 2005.

"Assembling High-Lead (Pb) DS2761 Flip-Chips in a Pb-Free Assembly Flow," Maxim Application Note 3599, Sept. 16, 2005.

"Assembly Guidelines: Sterling Silver & MacStan Immersion Tin Coated PCB's," HKPCA Journal, no. 12, pp. 1-7.

"Assembly Lines: Japan Leads in Lead-Free," Assembly, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Oct. 2004.

"Assessing Life-Cycle Impacts," EPA, May 2002.

"Assessment of Responses to the Third Consultation Documents: WEEE and RoHS Directives," DTI, Nov. 2004.

"ASTM Declarable Substances Committee Publishes New REACH Standard," CircuiTree, vol. 21 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2008.

"ASTM Establishes Committee on "Declarable Substances"," Conformity , vol. 10 no. 11, pp. 50, Nov. 2005.

"ASTM Establishes Committee on "Declarable Substances"," Conformity , pp. 214, Conformity 2006: The Annual Guide.

"At Deadline," Waste News, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 27, 2006.

"At the Sharp, (Toshiba and Panasonic) end of US recycling," Electronics Manufacture and Test, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Jan. 7, 2008.

"Autocatalytic Deposition of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 128, pp. 10-11, 1981.

"Avnet offers RoHS compliance data," Purchasing, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 4, 2004.

"Avoid the BGA Voids," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 11, pp. 40, Nov. 2010.

"Back Up Block 1 Whisker on Cu," June 6, 2003.

"Back Up Block 2 Whisker on NiFe," June 6, 2003.

"Back Up Block 3 Solderability," June 6, 2003.

"Background information on the environmental and health threat posed by Cadmium, in the context of the proposal on a directive on batteries and accumulators and spent batteries and accumulators (COM(2003)723)," EEB, Jan. 2004.

"Baking lead-free and lead PCB's before assembly," Circuitnet , Feb. 4, 2007.

"Ban Lifted on Deca-BDE Flame Ratardants," Printed Circuit Design and Fab, vol. 25 no. 7, pp. 8, July 2008.

"Ban on Lead May Accelerate Component Obsolescence Problems," Lead-free Electronics, Nov. 2004.

"Banish Black Pad and Other PCB Laminate Issues," Circuitnet, Sept. 9, 2008.

"Baroque Magnificence in Tin An Austrian Shrine," Tin and its Uses , no. 43, pp. 1-7, Summer 1958.

"Base Material Selection Tool," Polyclad.

"Basel e-Waste Conference Convenes," Surface Mount Technology Online Article, June 23, 2008.

"Basler Power Supplies," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-02-5, July 12, 2002.

"Battling Corrosion - and Making it Green," Products Finishing , vol. 73 no. 9, pp. 8, June 2009.

"BCF says that REACH is good for UK coatings industry." Finishing , vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 4, Jan.-Feb. 2006.

"Best, Inc. Lead-Free Roadmap," Best, June 6, 2005.

"Better than Chrome?," Products Finishing, vol. 73 no. 11, pp. 8-9, Aug. 2009.

"BFR Restrictions in Many US States to Follow EU's RoHS," Conformity , vol. 10 no. 9, pp. 53-54, Sept. 2005.

"BFR Restrictions in Many U.S. States Expected to Follow EU's RoHS," Conformity, pp. 214, Conformity 2006: The Annual Guide.

"BGA re-balled with lead free spheres," Circuitnet, June 4, 2006.

"BGA Repair for Mixed Assemblies," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 5, pp. 54, May 2006.

"BGA Replacement limit," Circuitnet, Jan. 26, 2009.

"BGA Rework - with or without solder paste," Circuitnet, Sept. 17, 2007.

"Black Pad - Though Rare, the Infamous and Irreparable PCB Defect Can Have Disastrous Consequences," IPC Review, vol. 2 no. 2, pp. 5, Mar./Apr. 2009.

"BMPCOE Strives to Mitigate Tin Whiskers," COTS Journal, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 60-63, Sept. 2003.

"Boeing 601 (f.k.a. Hughes HS 601)."

"Boots pleads guilty to WEEE breaches," RTE Business, Jan. 24, 2006.

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AAAA

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Al-Yafawi, Abdullah, Patil, Saket, Yu, Da, Park, Seungbae, Pitarresi, James, and Goo, Namseo, "Random Vibration Test for Electronic Assemblies Fatigue Life Estimation," 2010 12th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, Las Vegas, NV, June 2-5, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

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Amagai, Masazumi, "A Study of Nano Particles in SnAg-Based Lead Free Solders for Intermetallic Compounds and Drop Test Performance" Proceedings 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 30-June 2, 2006, pp. 1170-1190.

Amagai, Masazumi, "A study of nanoparticles in Sn-Ag based lead free solders," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 48 no. 1, pp. 1-16, Jan. 2008.

Amagai, Masazumi, Toyoda, Yoshitaka, Ohnishi, Tsukasa, and Akita, Satoru, "High Drop Test Reliability: Lead-free Solders," 54th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Volume 2, Las Vegas, NV, June 1-4, 2004, pp. 1304-1309.

Amagai, Masazumi, Toyoda, Yoshitaka, and Tajima, Takeshi, "High Solder Joint Reliability with Lead Free Solders," 2003 Proceedings 53rd Electronic Components & Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 27-30, 2003, pp. 317-322.

Amagai, Masazumi, Watanabe, Masako, Omiya, Masaki, Kishimoto, Kikuo, and Shibuya, Toshikazu, "Mechanical characterization of Sn-Ag-based lead-free solders," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 42 no. 6, pp. 951-966, June 2002.

Amagai, Masazumi, Suzuki, Yutaka, Abe, Kenji, Kim, YoungBae, and Sano, Hitoyuki, "Package-On-Package Mechanical Reliability Characterization," 9th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 10-12, 2007, pp. 557-570.

Amalu, E. H., Lau, W. K., Ekere, N. N., Bhatti, R. S., Mallik, S., Otiaba, K. C., and Takyi, G., "A study of SnAgCu solder paste transfer efficiency and effects of optimal reflow profile on solder deposits," Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88 no. 7, pp. 1610-1617, July 2011.

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Amarasekera, Jay, Liu, Bo, Cartier, Herve, and Chopin, Alexis, "Halogen-Free Flame Retardant High Temperature Materials for Lead-Free Soldering Applications," 2006 Medical Electronics Symposium Conference Proceedings, Minneapolis, MN, May 15-17, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Amato, Ivan, "Tin Whiskers: The Next Y2K Problem?," Fortune, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 29, 2004.

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Amey, Earle B., "Gold," Minerals Yearbook: Volume I. -- Metals and Minerals, 2003.

Amin, Nur Aishah Aminah Mohd, Shnawah, Dhafer Abdulameer, Said, Suhana Mohd, Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd, and Arof, Hamzah, "Effect of Ag content and the minor alloying element Fe on the electrical resistivity of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy," Journal of Alloys and Compounds , vol. 599, pp. 114-120, June 25, 2014.

Amir, Dudi, Aspandiar, Raiyo, Buttars, Scott, Chin, Wei Wei, and Gill, Paramjeet, "Head - and - Pillow SMT Failure Modes," SMTA International Conference , San Diego, CA, Oct. 4-8, 2009, pp. 409-421.

Amir, Dudi, "Head-and-Pillow SMT Failure Modes (Tutorial 20)," SMTA International 2011 Conference, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 16-20, 2011.

Amistoso, Jose Omar S., and Amorsolo Jr., Alberto V., "Study of Thermal Aging Effects on Intermetallic Growth Mechanisms and Shear Strength Behavior of Wafer-Level Solder Bumps," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, vol. 32 no. 2, pp. 405-414, June 2009.

Amistoso, Jose Omar S., and Amorsolo Jr., Alberto V., "The Effect of Intermetallic Growth on Bump Pull Test Responses of SAC105 Solder Bumps," Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol. 131 no. 4, pp. 041004-1-041004-6, Dec. 2009.

Amla, Tarun, "Conductive Anodic Filament Growth Failure," IPC Printed Circuits Expo 2002, pp. S08-2-1 to S08-2-6.

Ammons, Jane C., Assavapokee, Tiravat, Newton, David, and Realff, Matthew J., "Reverse production system design for recycling under uncertainty," Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing II (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Volume 4569), Newton, USA, Oct. 28-29, 2001, pp. 1-12.

Amore, S., Delsante, S., Parodi, N., and Borzone, G., "Calorimetric Investigation of the Cu-Sn-Bi Lead-Free Solder System," Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 92 no. 1, pp. 227-232, Apr. 2008.

Amore, S., Delsante, S., Parodi, N., and Borzone, G., "Thermochemistry of Pd-In, Pd-Sn and Pd-Zn alloy systems," Thermochimica Acta, vol. 481 no. 1-2, pp. 1-6, Jan. 5, 2009.

Amore, S., Ricci, E., Borzone, G., and Novakovic, R., "Wetting behaviour of lead-free Sn-based alloys on Cu and Ni substrates," Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 495 no. 1-2, pp. 108-112, Nov. 15, 2008.

Amore, Stefano, Ricci, Enrica, Lanata, Tiziana, and Novakovic, Rada, "Surface tension and wetting behaviour of molten Cu-Sn alloys," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 452 no. 1, pp. 161-166, Mar. 6, 2008.

Amorosi, Drew, "Court of Appeals Upholds OSHA's Hex-Chrome PEL," Metal Finishing , vol. 107 no. 5, pp. 16-17, May 2009.

An, Bing, and Wu, Chi-man Lawrence, "Evaluation of Wettability of Composite Solder Alloy Reinforced with Silver and Copper Particles," 8th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shanghai, China, Aug. 14-17, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

An, Bing, Cai, Xiong-hui, Chu, Hua-bin, Lai, Xiao-wei, Wu, Feng-Shun, and Wu, Yi-ping, "Flex Reliability of RFID Inlays Assembled by Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive," International Symposium on High Density Packaging and Microsystem Integration, Shanghai, China, June 26-28, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

An, Bing, Wu, Yiping, Cai, Xionghui, and Wu, Fengshun, "Reliability of RFID Tag Inlay Assembled by Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive," 2nd Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference, Greenwich, London, UK, Sept. 1-4, 2008, pp. 1203-1207.

An, Bing, Gu, Guoqiang, Zhang, Wenfei, and Wu, Yiping, "Shear Creep Behavior of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Solder Bumps in Ball Grid Array," 2011 International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials, Xiamen, China, Oct. 25-28, 2012, pp. 257-261.

An, Lili, Ma, Haitao, Qu, Lin, Wang, Jie, Liu, Jiahui, and Huang, Mingliang, "The Effect of Laser-soldering Parameters on the Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu Interfacial Reaction," 2013 14th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Dalian, China, Aug. 11-14, 2013, pp. 264-267.

An, M., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, Z., and Tu, Z., "Mechanism of Additives in Electroplating of Zn-Zn Alloy," Plating & Surface Finishing, vol. 86 no. 5, pp. 130-132, May 1999.

An, R., Wang, C. Q., and Tian, Y. H., "Elastic Property of Cu3Sn Determined by a First-Principles Calculation on the Basis of its Crystal Substructure," 8th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shanghai, China, Aug. 14-17, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

An, Rong, Wang, Chunqing, and Tian, Yanhong, "Depiction of the Elastic Anisotropy of AuSn4 and AuSn2 from First-principles Calculations," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 611-616.

An, Rong, Wang, Chunqing, and Tian, Yanhong, "Determination of the Elastic Properties of Au5Sn and AuSn from Ab Initio Calculations," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 7, pp. 968-974, July 2008.

An, Rong, Wang, Chunqing, Tian, Yanhong, and Wu, Huaping, "Determination of the Elastic Properties of Cu3Sn Through First-Principles Calculations," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 4, pp. 477-482, Apr. 2008.

An, Rong, Wang, Chunqing, and Tian, Yanhong, "First-Principles Study on the Elastic Anisotropy of Au-Sn Intermetallic Compounds," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Shanghai, China, July 28-31, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

An, Tong, and Qin, Fei, "A Simplified Computational Model for Solder Joints under Drop Impact Loadings," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 209-214.

An, Tong, Qin, Fei, and Xia, Guofeng, "Analytical Solutions and a Numerical Approach for Diffusion-Induced Stresses in Intermetallic Compound Layers of Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol. 136 no. 1, pp. 011001-1-0110018, Mar. 2014.

An, Tong, and Qin, Fei, "Cracking of the Intermetallic Compound Layer in Solder Joints Under Drop Impact Loading," Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol. 133 no. 3, pp. 031004-1-031004-7, Sept. 2011.

An, Tong, and Qin, Fei, "Effects of PCB Dynamic Responses on Solder Joint Stress," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging , Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 370-373.

An, Tong, and Qin, Fei, "Effects of the intermetallic compound microstructure on the tensile behavior of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu solder joint under various strain rates," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54 no. 5, pp. 932-938, May 2014.

An, Tong, and Qin, Fei, "Fracture Simulation of Solder Joint Interface by Cohesive Zone Model," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 260-266.

An, Tong, Qin, Fei, and Li, Jiangang, "Influence of Strain Rate Effect on Behavior of Solder Joints under Drop Impact Loadings," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 375-378.

An, Tong, and Qin, Fei, "Intergranular cracking simulation of the intermetallic compound layer in solder joints," Computational Materials Science, vol. 79, pp. 1-14, Nov. 2013.

An, Tong, Qin, Fei, and Li, Jiangang, "Mechanical behavior of solder joints under dynamic four-point impact bending," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 51 no. 5, pp. 1011-1019, May 2011.

Anand, Ashok, and Mui, Y. C., "Lead-free Solder Evaluation For Ball Attache Process," Proceedings of 4th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 10-12, 2002, pp. 6-10.

Anandakumar, S., Rani, V. Sudha, Rao, B. Parvatheeswara, Yoon, Seok Soo, Jeong, J.-R., and Kim, CheolGi, "Template Synthesis of Cobalt Nanowires Using PS-b-PMMA Block Copolymer," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45 no. 10, pp. 4063-4066, Oct. 2009.

Anaya, Francisco, "Wave Solder Thermal Profiling," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 46-47, Feb. 2010.

Anbe, Yoshinobu, "Why do solder spikes form?," Global SMT & Packaging, vol. 6 no. 4, pp. 34, 36, 38, Apr. 2006.

Anderson, I. E., Foley, J. C., Cook, B. A., Harringa, J., Terpstra, R. L., and Unal, O., "Alloying Effects in Near-Eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys for Improved Microstructural Stability," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 30 no. 9, pp. 1050-1059, Sept. 2001.

Anderson, I. E., and Harringa, J. L., "Elevated Temperature Aging of Solder Joints Based on Sn-Ag-Cu: Effects on Joint Microstructure and Shear Strength," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 33 no. 12, pp. 1485-1496, Dec. 2004.

Anderson, I. E., Cook, B. A., Harringa, J., and Terpstra, R. L., "Microstructural Modifications and Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints Induced by Alloying," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 31 no. 11, pp. 1166-1174, Nov. 2002.

Anderson, I. E., Walleser, J., and Harringa, J. L., "Observations of Nucleation Catalysis Effects during Solidification of SnAgCuX Solder Joints," JOM, vol. 59 no. 7, pp. 38-43, July 2007.

Anderson, I. E., Cook, B. A., Harringa, J. L. and Terpstra, R. L. "Sn-Ag-Cu Solders and Solder Joints: Alloy Development, Microstructure, and Properties," JOM, vol. 54 no. 6, pp. 26-29, June 2002.

Anderson, I. E., and Harringa, J. L., "Suppression of Void Coalescence in Thermal Aging of Tin-Silver-Copper-X Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 94-106, Jan. 2006.

Anderson, Iver E., Boesenberg, Adam, Harringa, Joel, Riegner, David, Steinmetz, Andrew, and Hillman, David, "Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 2, pp. 390-397, Feb. 2012.

Anderson, Iver E., Bloomer, Tamara E., Foley, James C., and Terpstra, Robert L., "Development of Eutectic and Near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys for Lead-Free Electronic Assemblies," IPC Works '99, Minneapolis, MN, Oct. 23-28, 1999, pp. xx-xx.

Anderson, Iver E., "Development of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-X alloys for Pb-free electronic solder applications," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 55-76, Mar. 2007.

Anderson, Iver E., Cook, Bruce A., Harringa, Joel, Terpstra, Robert L., Foley, James C., and Unal, Ozer, "Effects of Alloying in Near-Eutectic Tin-Silver-Copper Solder Joints," Materials Transactions, vol. 43 no. 8, pp. 1827-1832, Aug. 2002.

Anderson, Iver E., Kirkland, Kenneth, and Willenberg, Wayne, "Implementing Pb-free Soldering," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 14 no. 11, pp. 78-81, Nov. 2000.

Anderson, Iver E., Walleser, Jason W., Harringa, Joel L., Laabs, Fran, and Kracher, Alfred, "Nucleation Control and Thermal Aging Resistance of Near-Eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu-X Solder Joints by Alloy Design," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 12, pp. 2770-2779, Dec. 2009.

Anderson, Iver E., "Tin-Silver-Copper: A Lead Free Solder for Broad Applications," Proceedings of the Technical Program NEPCON West '96, Volume 2, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 25-29, 1996, pp. 882-887.

Anderson, Iver E., "Tin-Silver-Copper: A Lead Free Solder for Capacitor Interconnects," 1996 Proceedings 16th Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, New Orleans, LA, Mar. 11-15, 1996, pp. 63-65.

Anderson, Lynda L., and Mahoney Jr., Robert, "Converting Cable Assembly Manufacturing to Lead Free Solder," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2013 Proceedings , Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 14-17, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Anderson, Mark, "What an E-Waste," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 47 no. 9, pp. 72, Sept. 2010.

Anderson, R., Chilukuri, R., Tee, T. Y., Koo, C. P., Ng, H. S., Rogers, B., and Syed, A., "Advances in WLCSP technologies for growing market needs," Global SMT and Packaging, vol. 10 no. 3, pp. 26-28,30,32, Mar, 2010.

Anderson, R., Chilukuri, R., Tee, T. Y., Koo, C. P., Ng, H. S., Rogers, B., and Syed, A., "Advances in WLCSP Technologies for Growing Market Needs," Wafer & Device Packaging and Interconnect, vol. 1 no. 5, pp. 14-18, June/July 2010.

Anderson, Rex, Tee, Tong Yan, Tan, Long Bin, Ng, Hun Shen, Low, Jim Hee, Khoo, Choong Peng, Moody, Robert, and Rogers, Boyd, "Integrated Testing, Modeling and Failure Analysis of CSPnl for Enhanced Board Level Reliability," SMTA International Wafer-Level Packaging Conference , San Jose, CA, Oct. 13-16, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Anderson, Rex, Tee, Tong Yan, and Tan, Long Bin, "Integrated testing, modeling and failure analysis of CSPnl for board level reliability," Global SMT and Packaging, vol. 10 no. 6, pp. 16-18,20,22-23, June 2010.

Anderson, Richard A., "Reviewing RoHS Compliance For Harsh Environments," Microwaves & RF, vol. 46 no. 2, pp. 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 79-80, 82, 84, Feb. 2007.

Anderson, Richard A., Paquette, Stan, and Wilkish, George, "TCP replaces hexavalent chromium coatings in enclosures," Green SupplyLine, Apr. 7, 2006.

Anderson, Steve, "An Expert Looks at the IssuesTM," Chip Scale Review, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, July-Aug. 2000.

Anderson, Thomas A., "Get the lead out," Green SupplyLine, July 25, 2005.

Anderson, Thomas, "Getting the lead out," EE Times - Asia, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 1, 2005.

Anderson, Vance, "DoD Efforts to Address RoHS and WEEE Lead-Free Impacts," 9th Joint FAA/DoD/NASA Aging Aircraft Conference, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 6-9, 2006.

Anderson, Vance, "Lead-Free Impacts on DoD Microelectronics," DoD Diminishing Manufacturing Sources & Material Shortages (DMSMS) Workshop, San Antonio, TX, Dec. 13-15, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Anderson, Vance, "Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Panel," DoD Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages Conference, Charlotte, NC, July 11. 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Andersson, C., Liu, L., and Liu, J., "Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Sn-Co-Cu Lead Free Alloy," 1st Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference, Volume 1, Dresden, Germany, Sept. 5-7, 2006, pp. 152-160.

Andersson, C., Lai, Z., Liu, J., Jiang, H., and Yu, Y., "Comparison of isothermal mechanical fatigue properties of lead-free solder joints and bulk solders," Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 394 no. 1-2, pp. 20-27, Mar. 15, 2005.

Andersson, C., and Liu, J., "Effect of corrosion on the low cycle fatigue behavior of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder joints," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 30 no. 5, pp. 917-930, May 2008.

Andersson, C., Andersson, D. R., Tegehall, P. E., and Liu, J., "Effect of different temperature cycling profiles on the crack initiation and propagation of Sn-3.5Ag wave soldered solder joints," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 47 no. 2-3, pp. 266-272, Feb.-Mar. 2007.

Andersson, C., and Liu, J., "Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu Lead-free Solder Joints in Different Corrosive Environmental Conditions," 1st Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference, Volume 1, Dresden, Germany, Sept. 5-7, 2006, pp. 457-467.

Andersson, C., Vandevelde, B., Noritake, C., Sun, P., Tegehall, P. E., Andersson, D. R., Wetter, G., and Liu, J., "Thermal cycling of lead-free Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu 388PBGA packages," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 21 no. 2, pp. 28-38, 2009.

Andersson, Cristina, Lai, Zonghe, Liu, Johan, Jiang, Hairong, and Yu, Yongning, "Comparison Of Isothermal Mechanical Fatigue Properties Of Lead-Free Solder Joints And Bulk Solders," Fifth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology Proceedings, Shanghai, China, Oct. 28-30, 2003, pp. 371-376.

Andersson, Cristina, Andersson, Dag R., Tegehall, Per-Erik, Andersson, Jan, and Liu, Johan, "Correlation Between Thermomechanical Reliability of BGAs and Manufacturing Process Parameters," IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Barcelona, Spain, June 7-10, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Andersson, Cristina, Andersson, Dag R., Tegehall, Per-Erik, and Liu, Johan, "Effect of different temperature cycle profiles on the crack propagation and microstructural evolution of lead free solder joints of different electronic components," Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Thermal and Mechanical Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems , Brussels, Belgium, May 9-12, 2004, pp. 455-464.

Andersson, Christina, Sun, Peng, and Liu, Johan, "Low Cycle Fatigue of Sn-based Lead-free Solder Joints and the Analysis of Fatigue Life Prediction Uncertainty," Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE CPMT Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, Shanghai, June 27-28, 2006, pp. 272-279.

Andersson, K., Salmela, O., Perttula, A., Sarkka, J., and Tammenmaa, M., "Measurement of acceleration factor for lead-free solder (SnAg3.8Cu0.7) in thermal cycling test of BGA components and calibration of lead-free solder joint model for life prediction by finite element analyses," Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems, Berlin, Germany, Apr. 18-20, 2005, pp. 448-453.

Andersson, Cristina, Zou, Changdong, Yang, Bin, Gao, Yulai, Liu, Johan, and Zhai, Qijie, "Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Lead-free Solder Nanoparticle," 2nd Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference, Greenwich, London, UK, Sept. 1-4, 2008, pp. 915-921.

Andersson, Cristina, Sun, Peng, and Liu, Johan, "Tensile properties and microstructural characterization of Sn-0.7Cu-0.4Co bulk solder alloy for electronics applications," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 457 no. 1-2, pp. 97-105, June 12, 2008.

Andersson, Cristina, Tegehall, Per-Erik, Andersson, Dag R., Wetter, Goran, and Liu, Johan. "Thermal Cycling Aging Effect on the Shear Strength, Microstructure, Intermetallic Compounds (IMC) and Crack Initiation and Propagation of Reflow Soldered Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Wave Soldered Sn-3.5Ag Ceramic Chip Components," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, vol. 31 no. 2, pp. 331-344, June 2008.

Ando, Toshihiro, Shibata, Masamitsu, Okada, Seiichi, and Namasuya, Yoshikazu, "Stress Analysis and Accelerated Evaluation of Tin Whisker under Thermal Shock Stress," Murata.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Applicability and Accuracy Improvement for Life-Cycle Assessment in Microelectronics Packaging," Proceedings of 7th International Conference on EcoBalance, Tsukuba, Japan, Nov. 14-16, 2006, pp. 281-284.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Andersson, Dag R., Ramberg, Cecilia, Bengtsson, Gunnar, and Liu, Johan, "Application of Simplified Methods for Partial Environmental Assessment of Microelectronics Soldering Materials and Processes in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises," Gate to Environmental and Health Sciences (Internet-Journal Gate to EHS), no. 5, May 18, 2005, pp. 1-8.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Conductive Adhesives vs. Solder Paste: A Comparative Life Cycle Based Screening," Proceedings of 14th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, June 11-13, 2007, pp. 285-290.

Andrae, Anders S. G., and Liu, Johan, "Consequential Toxicity Assessment of the Global Shift to Pb-free Solder Paste," Proceedings of International Conference on Electronics Packaging , Tokyo, Japan, Apr. 19-21, 2006, pp. 298-303.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Environmental Implications of the Substitution of Silver-based Interconnection Materials as evaluated by Life Cycle Assessment," Proceedings of EcoDesign 2007, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 10-13, 2007, pp. C3-4-2F.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Global environmental impact assessment of the Pb-free shift," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 18-28, 2007.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Zou, Gang, and Liu, Johan, "LCA of Electronic Products: An environmental assessment of Gallium Arsenide Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit System-In-a-Package (SIP) Switch Product," International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 9 no. 1, pp. 45-52, Jan. 2004.

Andrae, Anders S. G., and Andersen, Otto, "Life cycle assessment of integrated circuit packaging technologies," International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 16 no. 3, pp. 258-267, Mar. 2011.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Life cycle assessment of Japanese high-temperature Japanese conductive adhesives," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 42 no. 8, pp. 3084-3089, 2008.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Life cycle assessment of Japanese high-temperature Japanese conductive adhesives," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. ? no. ?, pp. xx-xx, Jan. 22, 2008.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Itsubo, Norihiro, Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, and Inaba, Atsushi, "Screening Life Cycle Assessment of Silver-Based Conductive Adhesive vs. Lead-Based Solder and Plating Materials," Materials Transactions, vol. 48 no. 8, pp. 2212-2218, 2007.

Andrae, Anders S. G., Andersson, Dag R., and Liu, Johan, "Significance of intermediate production processes in life cycle assessment of electronic products assessed using a generic compact model," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 13 no. 13-14, pp. 1269-1279, Nov.-Dec. 2005.

Andrae, Anders S. G., and Ekvall, Tomas, "The Shift to Lead-Free Solders - An Analysis of the Environmental Effects Using Two Different Life Cycle Inventory Models," InLCA/LCM Internet Conference, July 11-24, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

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Buetow, Mike, "EU Committee Votes to Further Assess Substances in RoHS Directive," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 10, July 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "EU Extends RoHS Coverage," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol 28 no. 7, pp. 10, July 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "EU Sets RoHS Max. Concentration Levels," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 11, pp. 13, Nov. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Feeling Rosin's Burn," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 11, pp. 6, Nov. 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "Finality over Finishes?," PCB Update, May 6, 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Fired Up Over Nepcon China Venue," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. 4, June 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "For Lead, No Blue Sky," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture , vol. 21 no. 4, pp. 48, Apr. 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "France to Enact Stiff REACH Penalties," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 4, pp. 10, Apr. 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "Free Calculator Eases Surface Finish Dilemma," Circuits Assembly , vol. 18 no. 8, pp. 8, Aug. 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "Frost: Aerospace, Defense Face Pb-Free Challenges," Circuits Assembly , vol. 18 no. 10, pp. 12, Oct. 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "GEIA Publishes Tin Whiskers Spec, 2 Others," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 10, pp. 6, Oct. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Henkel: No Limits in Sight," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 22, Feb. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "'Homogenous': Definition Under Fire," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 21 no. 7, pp. 48, July 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "House Wants Deca BFR Out Too," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 10, Feb. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "`How Flexible Can You Be?'," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 5, pp. 12, May 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "HP, Sony Seek RoHS Exemptions," Feb. 28, 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "IEC Bails on RoHS Marking Specs," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 16, Feb. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Industry News," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 8-16, Feb. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "iNEMI Publishes Pb-Free Tome," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 12, pp. 10, Dec. 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "iNEMI Releases Creep Corrosion Risk Guidelines," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol 29 no. 7, pp. 12,14, July 2012.

Buetow, Mike, "iNEMI Seeks to Resolve Pb-Free Alloy, Failure Issues," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 6, pp. 12, June 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Input Sought on RoHS 2 FAQ," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol 29 no. 8, pp. 8, Aug. 2012.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC 'Concerned' Over Proposed IEEE Environmental Standards," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 29 no. 8, pp. 10, Aug. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC Gets in on Pb-Free Certification Act," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 3, pp. 10, Mar. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC Opposes EPA's Proposed Toxic Substances Rule," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 10, pp. 9, Oct. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC rebuts Proposed RoHS Revisions," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19 no. 11, pp. 8, Nov. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC Releases Pad Cratering Spec," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 12, May 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC Releases TAL White Paper," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 10, Feb. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC Standard Updated for Pb-, Halogen-Free Base Materials," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 10, Feb. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "IPC to Develop Data Exchange Standard for Conflict Minerals Regulation," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 9, pp. 12,15, Sept. 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "ISO for Pb-Free?," PCB Update, Aug. 19, 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Korea Drafts RoHS Rules," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. 6, June 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Korea Passes RoHS Law," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 12-14, June 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "'Lack of Martha Stewarts' Slowing XRF Acceptance," Circuits Assembly , vol. 19. no. 6, pp. 10, June 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Latest Solder Mask Spec Addresses Pb-Free," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 6, 8, Mar. 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "Low-Silver Solders Sparkle," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 8, pp. 5, Aug. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "MassTech EMS Offers Pb-Free Conversion Program," Circuits Assembly , vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 8, Dec. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Mother's Milk," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 21 no. 3, pp. 51, Mar. 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "Moving Targets," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 5, pp. 6, May 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "'Nay' Voters Fired Up Against Low Bromine Spec," Circuits Assembly , vol. 20 no. 9, pp. 8, Sept. 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "NEMI Revises Tin Whisker Guidance," Circuits Assembly, vol. 15 no. 9, pp. xx-xx, Aug. 31, 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "No Fly Zone," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 7, pp. 6, July 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "'No' Votes Force Changes to J-STD-709," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 6, pp. 6, June 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "NPL Devises Pb-free Alloy Tester," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 6, pp. 10, June 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "OEM Group Calls for Steady Supply of SnPb Parts," Circuits Assembly, Aug. 26, 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Oko, Fraunhofer Recommand Discontinuation of 7 RoHS Exemptions," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 5, pp. 12, May 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "On Silver, Gold and Holidays," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 12, pp. 6, Dec. 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "Paper: Halogen-Free Packages Reveal New Failure Modes," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 29 no. 2, pp. 8,10, Feb. 2012.

Buetow, Mike, "Possible RoHS Followup 'Arbitrary and Capricious,' IPC Claims," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 5, pp. 8, May 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Profiles in Standards," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19 no. 10, pp. 6, Oct. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Proposed RoHS Revisions to Include Medical Devices," Circuits Assembly , vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 8,10, Feb. 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "Proposed Spec Sets the Pb-Free Mark," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 8, pp. 10, Aug. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "REACH Now a Reality," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 7, pp. 8, July 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "REACH Update: 300 Chemicals on SIN List," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19 no. 11, pp. 8, Nov. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Report: Pb-Free Still a Fraction of Production," Circuits Assembly , vol. 17 no. 12, pp. 12, Dec. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Report: There's No 'We' in 'WEEE'," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. 6, June 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Report: XRF a Viable RoHS, Tin Whisker Screener," Circuits Assembly , vol. 19 no. 1, pp. 8, Jan. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Revised EU RoHS Directive Published," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 8, pp. 14, Aug. 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "Rising Silver Costs Up Solder Costs at Henkel," Circuits Assembly , vol. 17 no. 7, pp. 14, July 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "RoHS Exemption Sought for Semi Gear," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 3, pp. 12, Mar. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "RoHS Exemptions Input Released," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 6, pp. 8, June 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "RoHS Testing, Reporting Standards Progressing," Circuits Assembly , vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 10, Dec. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Shot Down?," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 5, pp. 5, May 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "Smart Group to Release Updated Pb-Free Defect Guide," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 10, Sept. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "SMTA Panel Talks Lean, Pb-Free and the Economy," Circuits Assembly , vol. 19 no. 7, pp. 8,10,12,14, July 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Solder Vendors Find 'No Difference' in Tested SAC Alloys," Circuits Assembly, vol. 15 no. 11, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "Solder Vendors: 'No Difference' in Tested SAC Alloys," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 1, pp. 8, Jan. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Solder Vendors: Voiding Doesn't Affect Joint Reliability," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 12, Feb. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Solder Verdict In: SAC 305 the Favorite," Circuits Assembly, July 1, 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "Starting a Fire," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 6, Feb. 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "Survey: Pb-Free Soldering Now Dominates Europe," Circuits Assembly , vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 12, June 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "The Conflict Over `Conflict Metals' Audits," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 1, pp. 4, Jan. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "The End of Pb-Free Wave Soldering?," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. 14, July 2007.

Buetow, Mike, "The Pb-Free Matrix," PCB Update, Oct. 14, 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "The REACH Pandemic," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 6, Sept. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Drum Still Beating," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 6, Feb. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Ears," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly , vol 28 no. 3, pp. 6, Mar. 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Men," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 3, pp. 18, Mar. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Men, Or Why 'Pb-Free Isn't Free'," Circuits Assembly, vol. 15 no. 11, pp. xx-xx, Oct. 27, 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Whiskers Email Forum Open," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 4, pp. 14, Apr. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Whiskers Found in Toyota ETC," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol 28 no. 3, pp. 10,12, Mar. 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "UK DTI Issues WEEE Consultation Document," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 9, pp. 14, Sept. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "UK DTI Puts WEEE under Review" Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 12, Feb. 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Urgency Lacking on Pb-Free," Lead-Free Magazine, vol. 3, Feb. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "US Enacts 'Conflict Metal' Law," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 10, Sept. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "US EPA to Propose DecaBDE Phaseout," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 8, Feb. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "US GAO Report Spurs EPA Action on Electronics Recycling," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 10, pp. 9-10, Oct. 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "US House Bill Proposes to Ban Common Elements," Circuits Assembly , vol. 20 no. 7, pp. 6, July 2009.

Buetow, Mike, "USAF Seeks Sn Whisker Mitigation Proposals," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 10, May 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "Web Sites Aid Pb-Free Transition," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 6, pp. 10, June 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "White Paper Outlines Tests for Pb-Free Alloy Evaluation," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 12, July 2010.

Buetow, Mike, "Wisconsin, NYC Pushing Electronics Recycling Bills," Circuits Assembly , vol. 19 no. 1, pp. 10, Jan. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "'You Have to Be Prepared to Change'," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 5, pp. 18, 20, May 2006.

Bui, Q. V., and Jung, S. B., "Characterization of low speed shear test reliability of Sn-1.0Ag-XCe/ENEPIG solder joint," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 560, pp. 54-61, May 25, 2013.

Bui, Q. V., Nam, N. D., Noh, B.-I., Kar, A., Kim, J.-G., and Jung, S.-B., "Effect of Ag addition on the corrosion properties of Sn-based solder alloys," Materials and Corrosion, vol. 61 no. 1, pp. 30-33, Jan. 2010.

Bui, Q. V., Nam, N. D., Yoon, J. W., Choi, D. H., Kar, A., Kim, J. G., and Jung, S. B., "Effect of Gold on the Corrosion Behavior of an Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold Surface Finish," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40 no. 9, pp. 1937-1942, Sept. 2011.

Bui, Q. V., and Jung, S. B., "Effect of Pd thickness on wettability and interfacial reaction of Sn-1.0Ag-Ce solders on ENEPIG surface finish," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 423-430, Jan. 2014.

Bui, Q. V., and Jung, S. B., "Evaluation of mechanical properties of low-Ag ball grid array solder joints using a high-speed ball shear test," Journal of Alloys and Compounds , vol. 589, pp. 590-595, Mar. 15, 2014.

Bukat, K., Sitek, J., Kisiel, R., Moser, Z., Gasior, W., Koscielski, M., and Pstrus, J., "Evaluation of the influence of Bi and Sb additions to Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn alloys on their surface tension and wetting properties using analysis of variance - ANOVA," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 4, pp. 9-19, 2008.

Bukat, K., Moser, Z., Sitek, J., Gasior, W., Koscielski, M., and Pstrus, J., "Investigation of Sn-Zn-Bi solders - Part I: Surface tension, interfacial tension and density measurements of SnZn7Bi solders," Soldering &, Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 3, pp. 10-16, 2010.

Bukat, K., Sitek, J., Koscielski, M., Moser, Z., Gasior, W., and Pstrus, J., "Investigation of Sn-Zn-Bi solders - Part II: wetting measurements on Sn-Zn7Bi solders on copper and on PCBs with lead-free finishes by means of the wetting balance method," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 4, pp. 13-19, 2010.

Bukat, K., Sitek, J., Koscielski, M., Jakubowska, M., Sloma, M., Mlozniak, A., and Niedzwiedz, W., "SAC 305 solder paste with carbon nanotubes - part I: investigation of the influence of the carbon nanotubes on the SAC solder paste properties," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 4, pp. 267-279, 2012.

Bukat, K., Koscielski, M., Sitek, J., Jakubowska, M., and Mlozniak, A., "Silver nanoparticles effect on the wettability of Sn-Ag-Cu solder pastes and solder joints microstructure on copper," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 3, pp. 150-160, 2011.

Bukat, Krystyna, Sitek, Janusz, Koscielski, Marek, Moser, Zbigniew, Gasior, Wladyslaw, and Pstrus, Janusz, "Investigation of the wetting of PCBs with SnCu (HASL) and Snimm finishes by SnZnBiIn solders," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1, pp. 4-11, 2012.

Bukat, Krystyna, Koscielski, Marek, Sitek, Janusz, Jakubowska, Malgorzata, and Mlozniak, Anna, "Properties of the SAC Solder Paste with Different Nanoparticles," 2011 34th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Tratanska Lomnica, Slovakia, May 11-15, 2011, pp. 537-541.

Bukat, Krystyna, Sitek, Janusz, Koscielski, Marek, Niedzwiedz, Wojciech, Mlozniak, Anna, and Jakubowska, Malgorzata, "SAC solder paste with carbon nanotubes. Part II. Carbon nanotubes' effect on solder joints' mechanical properties and microstructure," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 4, pp. xx-xx, 2013.

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Bulkeley, Debra, "Software to the rescue," Electronic Business, Apr. 1, 2006.

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Bunea, R., Svasta, P., and Marghescu, C., "Modeling and Simulation of Pb-free Solder Joints Behavior During Laser Soldering Correlated to the 4P Model," 2009 15th International Symposium for Design and Technology of Electronics Packages, Gyula, Hungary, Sept. 17-20, 2009, pp. 379-382.

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Burgess, Michael R., and Coleman, William E., "Lead Free Solder Paste Printing: Stencil and Squeegee Blade Impact," IPC Printed Circuits Expo, APEX and the Designer Summit, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 8-10, 2006, pp. S06-02-1-S06-02-12.

Burgess, Michael R., and Coleman, William E., "Lead Free Solder Paste Printing: Stencil and Squeegee Blade Impact," IPC Printed Circuits Expo, APEX and the Designer Summit, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 8-10, 2006, pp. S23-01-1-S23-01-11.

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Burke, Cillian, and Punch, Jeff, "A Comparison of the Creep Behaviour of Joint-Scale SAC105 and SAC305 Solder Samples under Shear Conditions," 2012 13th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lisbon, Portugal, Apr. 16-18, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Burke, Cillian, Punch, Jeff, and Collins, Maurice, "Creep Behavior of Joint-Scale Sn1.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Shear Samples," 2012 IEEE 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 29-June 1, 2012, pp. 505-512.

Burke, John, "A Catalytic Convertor," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 54, Apr. 2007.

Burke, John, "A Chance for Sanity," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 56, June 2007.

Burke, John, "A guide to collecting hazardous materials data," Green SupplyLine , Jan. 31, 2006.

Burke, John, "Get SMART: Tin Whiskers Eliminated!,". Burke, John, "Hard Lessons of RoHS," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 2, pp. 94-95, Feb. 2007.

Burke, John, "It might be lead free, but it's definitely not green," Green SupplyLine, May 1, 2006.

Burke, John, "Letter to the Editor: Dr Ron - Dust Off Your Driver! Re: "Repeal RoHS" Movement Emerges," PCB007, Oct. 5, 2006.

Burke, John, "RoHS: Long-Term Perspective and Legal and Trade Challenges," Mar. 8, 2006.

Burke, John, "The EU RoHS Consultants - Who ARE these Guys?," PCB007, Sept. 18, 2006.

Burke, John, "Whither Due Diligence?," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 1, pp. 56, 62, Jan. 2007.

Burke, John, "Whose Conscience?," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 56, Mar. 2007.

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Burlacu, Dragos, Nguyen, Luu, and Kivilahti, Jorma, "Influence of Solder Microstructure and Oxide Layers on High Frequency Electrical Losses of WL-CSP Pb-Free Interconnections," Proceedings 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 30-June 2, 2006, pp. 577-583.

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Burtt, Nigel, "New Environmental Regulations - Beyond REACH?," SMARTer, Dec. 2008.

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Busek, David, Selepova, Jirina, and Mach, Pavel, "Correlations Between Mechanical and Electrical Parameters of Modified Electrically Conductive Adhesives," 2011 34th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Tratanska Lomnica, Slovakia, May 11-15, 2011, pp. 118-121.

Busek, David, and Mach, Pavel, "Study of Glass Transition Temperature of Electrically Conductive Adhesives," 2012 IEEE 18th International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging, Alba Iulia, Romania, Oct. 25-28, 2012, pp. 143-146.

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Bush, Steve, "Adhesives could replace solder," Electronics Weekly, June 16, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "B2B firms must comply with WEEE rules three months early," Electronics Weekly, Nov. 7, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Batteries charged for disposal," Electronics Weekly, Sept. 9, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "China gets act together on RoHS compliance," Electronics Weekly , Nov. 13, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Competition in Europe pulls down recycling costs," Electronics Weekly, June 22, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Concern at small battery 'free riders'," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 8, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Conformity Certificates Will Not Satisfy RoHS," Electronic News , Nov. 9, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Conformity certificates will not satisfy RoHS legislation," Electronics Weekly, Nov. 9, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Detrimental voids discovered in Pb-free solder joints - University of Leicester," Electronics Weekly, June 25, 2009.

Bush, Steve, "Distributors offer useful advice on lead-free," Electronics Weekly , Apr. 7, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Does Europe's RoHS Contain Lead Loophole?," Electronics Weekly , Feb. 26, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Electronics shows no interest in EU's looming lead-free deadline," electronicsweekly.com, Sept. 11, 2002.

Bush, Steve, "Europe decides lead-free exemptions," Electronics Weekly, Oct. 13, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "European Commission short-circuits RoHS exemptions debate," Electronics Weekly, July 12, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "European energy law 'more profound than RoHS'," Electronics Weekly , May 17, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "European firms struggle to meet WEEE recovery targets," Electronics Weekly, Sept. 13, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "European initiatives to rescue lead-free disaster," Electronics Weekly, Jan. 22, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "Fears of tin whisker growth in solder trimmed by tests," Electronics Weekly, June 11, 2003.

Bush. Steve, "Fog thickens for Europe's Pb-free rules," Electronics Weekly , May 18, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Fog Thickens Over Europe's Lead-Free Rules," Electronics Weekly , Mar. 24, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Government must put cash behind recycling," electronicsweekly.com , Apr. 30, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "Government must put cash behind recycling technology opportunity," electronicsweekly.com, Apr. 30, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "Government sticks to RoHS deadline," Electronics Weekly, June 28, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "High-performance lead-free chip 'impossible' claims IR," Electronics Weekly, May 23, 2001.

Bush, Steve, "High temps, stresses cause whiskers," Electronics Weekly, June 13, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Ignorance of RoHS will strip SMEs of markets," Electronics Weekly , Sept. 7, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Japan's waste policy puts UK to shame," Electronics Weekly, Jan. 18, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Lack of data threatens RoHS plans," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 11, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Last chance to affect lead-free and waste directives," electronicsweekly.com, Aug. 4, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Lead-free Directive text rejected," electronicsweekly.com, June 16, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Lead-free loophole allows firms to sidestep European RoHS directive," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 25, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Lead-free loophole sidesteps RoHS directive," Electronics Weekly , May 18, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Lead-free: PCB coating," Electronics Weekly, Nov. 3, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "MEPs call "foul" on Pb-free exemptions," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 8, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Naming of the parts," Electronics Weekly, Sept. 14, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "NPL tests lead-free solder joints," Electronics Weekly, Nov. 25, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "'Odd' definition creates RoHS Directive loophole," Electronics Weekly, May 4, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Panel Studies Lead Contamination," Electronics Weekly, June 21, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Pb-Free Manufacturing Support Offered," ElectronicNews, May 20, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Philips Attacks Ambiguous Wording in Europe's RoHS," Electronics Weekly, May 19, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Proposed new RoHS Directives explained," ElectronicsWeekly.com , Dec. 3, 2008.

Bush, Steve, "Purging the pollutants for RoHS and WEEE," Electronics Weekly , Dec. 5, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Recycling target agreed on draft Battery Directive," Electronics Weekly, May 11, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Rocky road to RoHS compliance," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 2, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "RoHS crackdown is working in the U.K.," Electronics Weekly, Feb.14, 2007.

Bush, Steve, "RoHS: Distributor calls for new part numbers," Electronics Weekly , Sept. 19, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "RoHS overhaul of exemptions starts next year," Electronics Weekly , Oct. 11, 2007.

Bush, Steve, "RoHS test technique comes under scrutiny," Electronics Weekly , July 19, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "RoHS, WEEE and ELV Directive analysis machine," Electronics Weekly , Aug. 16, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Sign up for WEEE now, U.K. Environment Agency says," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 21, 2007.

Bush, Steve, "SMEs still shun Pb-free," electronicsweekly.com, Jan. 14, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "Suppliers get WEEE breathing space," ElectronicsWeekly.com, Mar. 29, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Third of European Companies Unprepared for Lead-Free," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 13, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Third of firms unprepared for Pb-free," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 13, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin industry argues for reliability of Pb-free PCBs," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 2, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin industry backs Pb-free reliability," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 2, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin whiskers brush with RoHS," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 18, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin whiskers have a brush with RoHS Directive over exemption," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 16, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Truce called on lead-free directive," Electronics Weekly, July 21, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "U.K. Readies RoHS Enforcement," Electronics Weekly, July 29, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "U.K. Sticks to RoHS Deadline," Electronics Weekly, June 28, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "UK authorities get tough over RoHS," Electronics Weekly, July 5, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "UK firms don't lead on lead-free," electronicsweekly.com, Sept. 11, 2002.

Bush, Steve, "UK links with Japan for lead-free plan," Electronics Weekly, Jan. 22, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "UK starts consultation for WEEE Directive proposals," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 5, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "Uncertainty over battery recycling targets," Electronics Weekly , Aug. 14, 2006.

Bush, Steve, "US researchers warn chip makers over solder stress," Electronics Weekly, Sept. 24, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "WEEE Directive compliance scheme launched," Electronics Weekly , July 26, 2004.

Bush, Steve, "Weights and measures lab to enforce RoHS," Electronics Weekly , July 26, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Will the US market play hard-ball over RoHS?," Electronics Weekly , Sept. 28, 2006.

Butel, Nicole, "Comparison of the Level 2 Characteristics of HITCE(TM) Substrate Assembled with SAC and High Lead Balls," SMTA International Conference, Orlando, FL, Oct. 7-11, 2007, pp. 442-459.

Butler, John, "Ask the EMPF Helpline!," empfasis, pp. xx-xx, End of year 2005.

Butler, Mike, "New adhesives for 260°C Reflow," SMART Group/NPL Lead Free Seminar 2003 , Feb. 23, 2003.

Buttars, Scott K., "Design for BGA Lead-Free Solder Joint Reliability," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 293-299.

Buttars, Scott K., Fan, Chonglun, and Aspandiar, Raiyo, "Should Intermetallic Thickness Measurements be Needed to Determine Solder Joint Reliability," SMTA International 2012 Conference Proceedings , Orlando, FL, Oct. 14-18, 2012, pp. 73-82.

Buttars, Scott K., Fan, Chonglun, and Aspandiar, Raiyo F., "Should Intermetallic Thickness Measurements be Needed to Determine Solder Joint Reliability," SMTA Journal, vol. 25 no. 4, pp. 13-22, 2012.

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Butterfield, Andrew, Visintainer, Valerie, and Goudarzi, Vahid, "Lead Free Solder Paste Flux Evaluation and Implementation in Personal Communication Devices," 2000 Proceedings 50th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Las Vegas, NV, May 21-24, 2000, pp. 1420-1425.

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Byle, Fritz, Jean, Denis, and Lee, Dale, "A Study of Copper Dissolution in Pb-Free Solder Fountain Systems," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 183-187.

CCCC

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Chada, Srinivas, Currie, Mark, Toleno, Brian, Steen, Hector, and Boyle, Richard, "Developing a Pb-Free Solder Through Micro-Alloying," SMTA International 2011 Conference Proceedings, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 16-20, 2011, pp. 724-730.

Chada, Srinivas, and Bradley III, Edwin, "Investigation of Immersion Silver PCB Finishes for Portable Product Applications," 2001 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 30-Oct. 4, 2001, pp. xx-xx.

Chada, Srinivas, "Lead-Free Implementation: Reliability, Alloy Development, and New Technology," JOM, vol. 58 no. 6, pp. 56, June 2006.

Chada, Srinivas, "Lead-free Solders: Reliability, an Ongoing Saga," JOM, vol. 63 no. 10, pp. 56, Oct. 2011.

Chada, Srinivas, "Lead-Free Solders: Reliability and Other Issues a Year after the Legislation," JOM, vol. 59 no. 7, pp. 19, July 2007.

Chada, Srinivas, "Lead-free Solders: Still Learning, Adapting, and Working Out the Kinks," JOM, vol. 62 no. 7, pp. 15, July 2010.

Chada, Srinivas, Herrmann, Ann, Laub, Werner, Fournelle, Raymond, Shangguan, Dongkai, and Achari, Achyuta, "Microstructural Investigation of Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb-Ag Solder Joints," Proceedings of the Technical Program NEPCON West '96, Volume 1, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 25-29, 1996, pp. 195-205.

Chada, Srinivas, "Topics in Lead-Free Solders: Interfacial and Sn Whisker Growth," JOM , vol. 64 no. 10, pp. 1174-1175, Oct. 2012.

Chada, Srinivas, "Topics in Lead-Free Solders: Restriction of Hazardous Substances Recast (RoHS2)," JOM, vol. 65 no. 10, pp. 1348-1349, Oct. 2013.

Chae, Seung-Hyun, Im, Jay, Uehling, Trent, and Ho, Paul S., "Effects of UBM Thickness, Contact Trace Structure and Solder Joint Scaling on Electromigration Reliability of Pb-Free Solder Joints," 2008 Proceedings 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27-30, 2008, pp. 354-359.

Chae, Seung-Hyun, Zhang, Xuefeng, Chao, Huang-Lin, Lu, Kuan-Hsun, Ho, Paul S., Ding, Min, Su, Peng, Uehling, Trent, and Ramanathan, Lakshmi N., "Electromigration Lifetime Statistics for Pb-Free Solder Joints with Cu and Ni UBM in Plastic Flip-Chip Packages," Proceedings 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 30-June 2, 2006, pp. 650-656.

Chae, Seung-Hyun, Zhang, Xuefeng, Lu, Kuan-Hsun, Chao, Huang-Lin, Ho, Paul S., Ding, Min, Su. Peng, Uehling, Trent, and Ramanathan, Lakshmi, "Electromigration statistics and damage evolution for Pb-free solder joints with Cu and Ni UBM in plastic flip-chip packages," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 247-258, Mar. 2007.

Chae, Seung-Hyun, Chao, Brook, Zhang, Xuefeng, Im, Jay, and Ho, Paul S., "Investigation of Intermetallic Compound Growth Enhanced by Electromigration in Pb-Free Solder Joints," 2007 Proceedings 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Reno, NV, May 29-June 1, 2007, pp. 1442-1449.

Chai, Fei, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Reliability of Gull-Wing and Leadless Packages Subjected to Temperature Cycling After Rework," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 12 no. 2, pp. 510-519, June 2012.

Chai, Fei, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Strain-Range-Based Solder Life Predictions Under Temperature Cycling With Varying Amplitude and Mean," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 14 no. 1, pp. 351-357, Mar. 2014.

Chai, T. C., Yu, D. Q., Lau, John, Zhu, W. H., and Zhang, X. R., "Angled High Strain Rate Shear Testing for SnAgCu Solder Balls," 2008 Proceedings 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27-30, 2008, pp. 623-628.

Chai, W. S., Gupta, M., Tay, A. A. O., and Caers, J. F. J., "Effect of Gold Layer Thickness on the Characteristics of Flip-chip Interconnects," Proceedings of 4th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 10-12, 2002, pp. 150-155.

Chaillot, A., Venet, N., Tegehall, P-E., Hokka, J., and Lortal, J-L., "ENEPIG finish: An Alternative Solution for Space Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)," 2013 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference, Grenoble, France, Sept. 9-12, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Chaillot, A., Grieu, M., Munier, C., Lombaert-Valot, I., Bousquet, S., Chastanet, C., Canaud, J-P., Dumonteil, R., Villard, S., Raynal, P., and Maron, D., "Fatigue life prediction models developed for Green Electronics in Aeronautical and Military Communication Systems (GEAMCOS)," 10th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, Delft, Netherlands, Apr. 26-29, 2009, pp. xx-xx.

Chaillot, A., Massiot, G., Munier, C., Lombaert-Valot, I., Bousquet, S., Chastanet, C., Plouseau, D., Munier, E., Maron, D., Raynal, P., Villard, S., and Dumonteil, R., "Finite Element Modelling (FEM) of Green Electronics in Aeronautical and Military Communication Systems (GEAMCOS)," Proceedings of the International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation Experiments in Microelectronics and Micro-Systems, London, England, Apr. 15-18, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Chakravarty, A. N., Sharma, Lokesh Kurma, and Gupta, Sameer, "Problem of dark wire - a new approach," Wire Journal International , vol. 35 no. 6, pp. 82-85, June 2002.

Chalco, Pedro, and Blackshear, Edmund, "Reliability Issues of BGA Packages Attached with Lead-Free Solder," Advances in Electronic Packaging 2001, Volume 1, Kauai, Hawaii, July 8-13, 2001, pp. 221-228.

Chalco, Pedro, "Solder Fatigue Reliability Issues in Lead-Free BGA Packages," 2002 Pan Pacific Symposium Conference Proceedings, Maui, Hawaii, Feb. 5-7, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Chaloupka, Andrew C., Sandborn, Peter A., and Konoza, Anthony, "Thermal Cycling Ramifications of Lead-Free Solder on the Electronic Assembly Repair Process," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 1 no. 6, pp. 964-974, June 2011.

Chaminade, C., Fogarassy, E., and Boisselier, D., "Diode laser soldering using a lead-free filler material for electronic packaging structures," Applied Surface Science, vol. 252 no. 13, pp. 4406-4410, Apr. 30, 2006.

Champaign, Robert F., Roepsch, Jodi A., and Downey, Marlin R., "Case Study: The Effect of Severe Black Pad Defect on Solder Bonds on Ball Grid Array Components," 2002 Advanced Technology Symposium Conference Proceedings, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Champaign, Robert F., and Ogden, Robert R., "Microscopy Study of Tin Whiskers," Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 10 no. 6, pp. 444-449, Dec. 2010.

Champaign, Robert, "Sn Whiskers?," McKinney Failure Analysis Lab.

Chan, Alex, Brown, Paul, Bruno, Lars, Knoph, Anne-Kathrine, Sack, Thilo, Geiger, David, Mendez, David, Abtew, Mulugeta, Muntele, Iulia, and Meilunas, Michael, "Collaboration Between OEM and EMS to Combat Head on Pillowing Defects: Part 1 - AXI Capability for HoP Detection," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2013 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 14-17, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Chan, Alex, Brown, Paul, Bruno, Lars, Knoph, Anne-Kathrine, Sack, Thilo, Geiger, David, Mendez, David, Abtew, Mulugeta, Muntele, Iulia, and Meilunas, Michael, "Collaboration Between OEM and EMS to Combat Head On Pillowing Defects: Part 1 - AXI Capability for HOP Detection," SMTAnews & Journal of Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3, pp. 15-22, July-Sept. 2013.

Chan, Alex, Brown, Paul, Coyle, Richard, Bruno, Lars, Knoph, Anne-Kathrine, Sack, Thilo, Geiger, David, Mendez, David, Kulterman, Ron, Abtew, Mulugeta, Muntele, Iulia, and VanDreel, Kirk, "Collaboration Between OEM and EMS to Combat Head on Pillowing Defects: Part 2 - Warpage Acceptance Proposal," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2013 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 14-17, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Chan, Alex, Brown, Paul, Coyle, Richard, Bruno, Lars, Knoph, Anne-Kathrine, Sack, Thilo, Geiger, David, Mendez, David, Kulterman, Ron, Abtew, Mulugeta, Muntele, Iulia, and Vandreel, Kirk, "Collaboration Between OEM and EMS to Combat Head On Pillowing Defects: Part 2 - Warpage Acceptance Proposal," SMTAnews & Journal of Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3, pp. 23-30, July-Sept. 2013.

Chan, Alex, Khan, Aman, and Kinyanjui, Robert, "Second Level Solder Joint Reliability of Quad Flat No-Lead (QFN) Packages for Use in IPC Class-2 Assemblies," SMTA International Conference, Orlando, FL, Oct. 7-11, 2007, pp. 412-419.

Chan, Alex, Khan, Aman, and Kinyanjui, R., "Solder Joint Reliability in High Reliability Application for QFN Type Packages ," International Conference on Soldering and Reliability , Toronto, Ontario, Apr. 17-19, 200